Pharm ch9.txt

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emtfrank
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Pharm ch9.txt
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2010-09-03 19:05:15
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Pharm vocabulary
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Pharm ch.9 vocabulary
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  1. Pharmacology
    the study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
  2. Drug
    chemical used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease
  3. Assay
    test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
  4. Bioequivalence
    relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
  5. Bioassay
    test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
  6. Dose Packaging
    medication packages contain a single dose for a single patient.
  7. Teratogenic Drug
    medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
  8. Free drug availability
    proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects.
  9. Pharmacokinetics
    how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted; how drugs are transported into and out of the body.
  10. Pharmacodynamics
    how a drug interact with the body to cause its effects.
  11. Active transport
    requires the use of energy to move a substance.
  12. Carrier-mediated diffusion/Facilitated diffusion
    process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
  13. Passive Transport
    movement of a substance without the use of energy.
  14. Diffusion
    movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  15. Osmosis
    movement of a solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
  16. Filtration
    movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
  17. Ionize
    to become electrically charged or polar.
  18. Bioavailability
    amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches it�s target tissue.
  19. Blood-brain barrier
    tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein-bound highly lipid soluble drugs can pass.
  20. Placental barrier
    biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
  21. Metabolism
    the body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals.
  22. Biotransformation
    special name given to the metabolism of drugs.
  23. Prodrug (parent drug)
    medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts into active metabolites.
  24. First-pass effect
    the liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
  25. Oxidation
    the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge on the molecule.
  26. Hydrolysis
    the breakage of a chemical bond by adding water or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
  27. Enteral route
    delivery of medication through the GI tract
  28. Parenteral route
    delivery of a medication outside of GI tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissue.
  29. Receptor
    specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect.
  30. Affinity
    force of attraction between a drug and a receptor.
  31. Efficacy
    a drug's ability to cause the expected response
  32. Second Messenger
    chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effect.
  33. Down-regulation
    binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease.
  34. Up-regulation
    a drug that causes the formation of more receptors than normal
  35. Agonist
    drug that binds to a receptor and cause it to initiate the expected response.
  36. Antagonist
    drug the binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expect response.
  37. Agonist-antagonist/partial agonist
    drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
  38. Competitive antagonism
    one drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
  39. Noncompetitive antagonism
    the binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
  40. Irreversible antagonism
    a competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
  41. Side effect
    unintended response to a drug.
  42. Drug-response relationship
    correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response.
  43. Plasma-level profile
    describes the lengths of onset, duration and termination of action as well as the drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
  44. Onset of action
    the time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
  45. Minimum effective concentration
    minimum level of drug needed to cause a given effect.
  46. Duration of action
    length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
  47. Termination of action
    Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body.
  48. Therapeutic index
    ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50% of the population to its effective dose for 50% of the population.
  49. Biological half-life
    time the body takes to clear a of a drug.
  50. Prototype
    Drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics.
  51. Analgesic
    Medication that relieves the sensation of pain.
  52. Analgesia
    The absence of the sensation of pain.
  53. Anesthesia
    The absence of all sensation.
  54. Adjunct medication
    Agent that enhances the effects of other drugs.
  55. Anesthetic
    Medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain.
  56. Neuroleptanesthesia
    Anesthesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious.
  57. Sedation
    State of decrease anxiety and inhibition
  58. Hypnosis
    Instigation of sleep
  59. Psychotherapeutic Medication
    Drug used to treat mental dysfunction.
  60. Extrapyramidal Symptoms
    Common side effects of antipsychotic medications including muscle tremors and parkinsonism-like effects.
  61. Neuroleptic
    Antipsychotic ( literally, affecting the nerves).
  62. Autonomic Nervous System
    The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions.
  63. Autonomic ganglia
    Groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the CNS.
  64. Preganglionic Nerves
    Nerve fibers that extend from the CNS to the autonomic ganglia.
  65. Postganglionic Nerves
    Nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissue.
  66. Synapse
    Space between nerve cells.
  67. Neuroeffector Junction
    Specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates.
  68. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse.
  69. Neuron
    Nerve cell
  70. Cholinergic
    Pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  71. Adrenergic
    Pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
  72. Parasympathomimetic
    Drug that causes the effects like those of the parasympathetic NS (AKA - cholinergic).
  73. Parasympatholytic
    Drug that blocks or inhibits that actions of the parasympathetic NS (AKA - anticholinergic).
  74. Sympathomimetic
    Drug that causes effects like those of the sympathetic NS (AKA - adrenergic).
  75. Sympatholytic
    Drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic NS (AKA - antiadrenergic).
  76. What is Alpha 1 functions
    • Constriction Arterioles
    • Constriction Veins
    • Mydriasis Eye
    • Ejaculation Penis
  77. What is Alpha 2 functions
    Presynaptic terminals inhibition
  78. What is Beta 1 function?
    • Increase heart rate (chronotropic)
    • Increase conductivity (dromotropic)
    • Increase contractility (inotrope)
    • Increase automaticity
    • Renin release (Kidney)
  79. What is Beta 2 functions?
    • Bronchodilation (Lungs)
    • Dilation (Arterioles)
    • Inhibition of contractions (Uterus)
    • Tremors (Skeletal Muscle)
  80. What is Beta 3 functions?
    Lipolysis (Adipose tissue)
  81. What is Dopaminergic function?
    Vasodilatation (increase blood flow) Kidney
  82. Antidysrhythmics
    Drug used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms.
  83. Antihypertensive
    Drug used to treat hypertension.
  84. Diuretic
    Drug used to reduce circulating blood volume by increasing the amount of urine.
  85. Hemostasis
    The stoppage of bleeding.
  86. Antiplatelet
    Drug that decreases the formation of platelet plugs.
  87. Anticoagulant
    Drug that interrupts the clotting cascade.
  88. Fibrinolytic
    Drug that acts directly on thrombi to break them down (AKA- thrombolytic).
  89. Antihyperlipidemic
    Drug used to treat high blood pressure.
  90. Leukotriene
    Mediator released from mast cells upon contact with allergens.
  91. Antihistamine
    Medication that arrests the effects of histamine by blocking its receptors.
  92. Histamine
    An endogenous substance that affects a wide variety of organ systems.
  93. Antitussive
    Medication that suppresses the stimulus to cough in the CNS.
  94. Expectorant
    Medication intended to increase the productivity of cough.
  95. Mucolytic
    Medication intended to make mucus more watery.
  96. Antacid
    Alkalotic compound used to increase the gastric environment's pH.
  97. Laxative
    Medication used to decrease stool's firmness and increase water content.
  98. Surfactant
    Substance that decreases surface tension.
  99. Antiemetic
    Medication used to prevent vomiting.
  100. Insulin
    Substance that decreases blood glucose level.
  101. Glucagon
    Substance that increases blood glucose level.
  102. Antineoplastic agent
    Drug used to treat cancer.
  103. Antibiotic
    Agent that kills or decrease the growth of bacteria.
  104. Pathogen
    Disease-causing organism
  105. Immunity
    The body's ability to respond to the presence of a pathogen.
  106. Serum
    Solution containing whole antibodies for a specific pathogen.
  107. Vaccine
    Solution containing a modified pathogen that does not actually cause disease but still stimulates the development of antibodies specific to it.

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