Card Set Information
Pharm ch.9 vocabulary
the study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
chemical used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease
test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
medication packages contain a single dose for a single patient.
medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
Free drug availability
proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects.
how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted; how drugs are transported into and out of the body.
how a drug interact with the body to cause its effects.
requires the use of energy to move a substance.
Carrier-mediated diffusion/Facilitated diffusion
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
movement of a substance without the use of energy.
movement of a solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
movement of a solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
to become electrically charged or polar.
amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches it�s target tissue.
tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the CNS vasculature through which only non-protein-bound highly lipid soluble drugs can pass.
biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
the body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals.
special name given to the metabolism of drugs.
Prodrug (parent drug)
medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts into active metabolites.
the liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge on the molecule.
the breakage of a chemical bond by adding water or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
delivery of medication through the GI tract
delivery of a medication outside of GI tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissue.
specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect.
force of attraction between a drug and a receptor.
a drug's ability to cause the expected response
chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effect.
binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease.
a drug that causes the formation of more receptors than normal
drug that binds to a receptor and cause it to initiate the expected response.
drug the binds to a receptor but does not cause it to initiate the expect response.
drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
one drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
the binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
a competitive antagonist permanently binds with a receptor site.
unintended response to a drug.
correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response.
describes the lengths of onset, duration and termination of action as well as the drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
Onset of action
the time from administration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
Minimum effective concentration
minimum level of drug needed to cause a given effect.
Duration of action
length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
Termination of action
Time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body.
ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50% of the population to its effective dose for 50% of the population.
time the body takes to clear a of a drug.
Drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics.
Medication that relieves the sensation of pain.
The absence of the sensation of pain.
The absence of all sensation.
Agent that enhances the effects of other drugs.
Medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain.
Anesthesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious.
State of decrease anxiety and inhibition
Instigation of sleep
Drug used to treat mental dysfunction.
Common side effects of antipsychotic medications including muscle tremors and parkinsonism-like effects.
Antipsychotic ( literally, affecting the nerves).
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions.
Groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the CNS.
Nerve fibers that extend from the CNS to the autonomic ganglia.
Nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissue.
Space between nerve cells.
Specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates.
Chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse.
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
Drug that causes the effects like those of the parasympathetic NS (AKA - cholinergic).
Drug that blocks or inhibits that actions of the parasympathetic NS (AKA - anticholinergic).
Drug that causes effects like those of the sympathetic NS (AKA - adrenergic).
Drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic NS (AKA - antiadrenergic).
What is Alpha 1 functions
What is Alpha 2 functions
Presynaptic terminals inhibition
What is Beta 1 function?
Increase heart rate (chronotropic)
Increase conductivity (dromotropic)
Increase contractility (inotrope)
Renin release (Kidney)
What is Beta 2 functions?
Inhibition of contractions (Uterus)
Tremors (Skeletal Muscle)
What is Beta 3 functions?
Lipolysis (Adipose tissue)
What is Dopaminergic function?
Vasodilatation (increase blood flow) Kidney
Drug used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms.
Drug used to treat hypertension.
Drug used to reduce circulating blood volume by increasing the amount of urine.
The stoppage of bleeding.
Drug that decreases the formation of platelet plugs.
Drug that interrupts the clotting cascade.
Drug that acts directly on thrombi to break them down (AKA- thrombolytic).
Drug used to treat high blood pressure.
Mediator released from mast cells upon contact with allergens.
Medication that arrests the effects of histamine by blocking its receptors.
An endogenous substance that affects a wide variety of organ systems.
Medication that suppresses the stimulus to cough in the CNS.
Medication intended to increase the productivity of cough.
Medication intended to make mucus more watery.
Alkalotic compound used to increase the gastric environment's pH.
Medication used to decrease stool's firmness and increase water content.
Substance that decreases surface tension.
Medication used to prevent vomiting.
Substance that decreases blood glucose level.
Substance that increases blood glucose level.
Drug used to treat cancer.
Agent that kills or decrease the growth of bacteria.
The body's ability to respond to the presence of a pathogen.
Solution containing whole antibodies for a specific pathogen.
Solution containing a modified pathogen that does not actually cause disease but still stimulates the development of antibodies specific to it.