Hydro = water
Iso = equal
Carb = coal
Enanti = opposite
Sulf = Sulfur
Thilo = Sulfur
Chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds.
(i.e. simple molecules, such as methane CH4, to colossal ones, such as proteins with thousands of atoms.)
Organic molecules consisting of hydrogen and carbon only.
(Hydrocarbons are major components of fossil fuel, consisting of partially decomposed remains of million-year old organisms. Hydrocarbon not prevalent in living organisms, but some molecules consists of them. Ex. Fat (long hydrocarbon tails attached to non-hydrocarbons) and petroleum do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic), because bonds are nonpolar carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties. 3 TYPES: Structural, Geometric, and Enantiomers.
same molecular formula but different in covalent arrangement of carbon skeletons (different covalent partners). Ex. 2 five carbon compounds have different structure; hence, different properties.
Same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangement.
Isomers that are mirror images of each other.
(Figure 4.7 carbon is called the asymmetric carbon because it is attached to four atoms/groups of atoms. These can be arranged diff. in space, which will have mirror images of each other.)
Chemical group that affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions.
(7 chemical groups most imp. in biological processes are the hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino,
sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl groups.
Hydroxyl Group (Functional Group)
Structure: OH---- or HO-----, hydrogen bonded to an oxygen, in turn bonded to a Carbon skeleton of an organic molecule. (not confused with hydroxide ion, OH-)
Name of Compound: Alcohols
Part of chemical group Hydroxyl. Specific names usually end in -ol.
EX: Ethanol : alcohol presented in alcohol beverages.
Functional Properties: polar as a result of electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom and can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugars.
Structure: carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond (leaving carbon to bond with 2 atoms).
Name of Compound: Ketones: if the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton. Aldehydes: if carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton.
Carbonyl Group. Ex. Propanal. (carbonyl group is at the end of the skeleton)
Aldehydes and Ketones are structural isomers that may have different properties, as in the case for propanal and acetone.
2 Groups are also found in sugars, 2 major sugars: aldoses (containing an aldehyde) and ketoses (containing a ketone).
Carbonyl Group: Simplest Ketone is Acetone. (carbonyl group is in the middle of the carbon skeleton).
Carboxyl Group (hydroxyl + carbonyl = carboxyl)
Oxygen is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl (---OH) group.
Name of Compound: Carboxylic Acid or organic acids.