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The Central Nervous System consists of what two parts of the body?
Brain and spinal cord
During the course of animal evolution, _____ has occurred. That is, there has been an elaboration of the rostral("toward the snout"), or anterior, portion of the CNS.
What does rostal mean?
Toward the snout, or anterior
The brain and spinal cord begin as an embryonic structure called the _____.
The neural tube (embryonic start point for the CNS) begins to expand and constrictions appear that mark of the three primary brain vesicles.
Name and describe the three
- Prosencephalon: forebrain
- Mesencephalon: Midbrain
- Rhombencephalon: Hindbrain
Caudal means . . .
Toward the tail, posterior
The neural tube (embryonic start point for the CNS) becomes the ____.
The primary vesicles in the neural tube give rise to the _____ brain vesicles.
The primary vesicles in the neural tube give rise to the secondary brain vesicles.
The forebrain divides into . . .
The Midbrain . . .
The hindbrain divides into . . .
- Telencephalon and Diencephalon(inter brain)
- Stays the same; remains undivided
- Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
Each of the five secondary vesicles then develops rapidly to produce the major structures of the adult ____.
The telencephalon sprouts two lateral swellings which become the ____.
The diencephalon divides to form ____, ____, ____, and ____.
- Retina of the eye
Secondary Brain vesicles
Mesencephalon becomes . . .
Metencephalon becomes . . .
Myelencephalon becomes . . .
- Brain stem: midbrain
- Brain stem: pons and Cerebellum
- Brain stem: Medulla Oblongata
The central cavity of the neural tube remains continues and enlarges in ____ to form fluid-filled vesicles.
The ____ and ___ flexures move the forebrain toward the brain stem.
As the brain grows, the continued growth of the cerebral hemispheres causes their surface to crease and fold into ____. which increase their surface area and allows for more neurons to occupy the limited space.
As the brain grows, the continued growth of the cerebral hemispheres causes their surface to crease and fold into convolutions. which increase ____ and allows for more neurons to ____.
- Their surface area
- Occupy the limited space
What are the 4 adult brain regions?
- Cerebral hemispheres
- Brain Stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata)
The gray matter of the CNS consists of short, ____ neurons and neuron body bodies. The white matter is composed of _____ and non-____ axons.
- myelinated and non-myelinated
The basic pattern of the CNS is a central cavity surrounded by ____ matter, external to which is ____ matter.
The brain stem has additional ___ matter nuclei scattered within the ____ matter.
The cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum have an outer layer or "bark" of ____ matter called a cortex.
The cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum have an outer layer or "bark" of grey matter called a .
The hollow ventricular chambers are filled with _____ fluid and lined by ____ cells, a type of neuroglia.
The paired ___ ventricles, one deep within each hemisphere, are large C-shaped chambers hat reflect the pattern of cerebral growth.
Anteriorly, the lateral ventricles lie close together, separated only by a thin membrane called the ____.
Each lateral ventricle communicates with the narrow ____ ventricle in the diencephalon via a channel called an _____.
- Interventricular foramen
The third ventricle is continuous with the fourth ventricle via a canal-like _____ that runs through the midbrain.
Three openings mark the walls of the fourth ventricle: the paired _____ in its side walls and the ____ in its roof. There apertures connect the ventricles to the _____ space.
- Lateral apertures
- Median aperture
The subarachnoid space is a fluid-filled space surrounding the ___.
The ____ form the superior part of the brain.
Elevated ridges of the brain tissue are called?
Shallow grooves are called ?
Deeper grooves in the cerebral hemispheres are called?
Fissures, separate large regions of the brain
The most prominent gyri and sulci are important ____ landmarks that are similar in all humans.
The _____ fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres.
What fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below?
Transverse cerebral fissure
Several sulci divide each hemisphere into five lobes-
The ___ sulcus, which lies in the frontal plane, separates the frontal and the parietal lobes.
Bordering the central sulcus are the _____ anteriorly, and the _____ posteriorly.
- Precentral gyrus
- Postcentral gyrus
The ____ sulcus located more posteriorly on the medial surface of the hemisphere,separates the occipital and parietal lobe.
The ____ sulcus outlines the flap-like temporal lobe and separates it from the parietal and frontal lobes.
The insula is buried deep within the ____ sulcus and forms part of its floor.
Each cerebral hemispheres have 3 basic regions.
- Superficial Cerebral cortex of gray matter.
- Internal White Matter
- Basal nuclei, island of gray matter situated deep within the white matter.