A&P 1 Lecture

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  1. The Central Nervous System consists of what two parts of the body?
    Brain and spinal cord
  2. During the course of animal evolution, _____ has occurred. That is, there has been an elaboration of the rostral("toward the snout"), or anterior, portion of the CNS.
  3. What does rostal mean?
    Toward the snout, or anterior
  4. The brain and spinal cord begin as an embryonic structure called the _____.
    Neural Tube
  5. The neural tube (embryonic start point for the CNS) begins to expand and constrictions appear that mark of the three primary brain vesicles.

    Name and describe the three
    • Prosencephalon: forebrain
    • Mesencephalon: Midbrain
    • Rhombencephalon: Hindbrain
  6. Caudal means . . .
    Toward the tail, posterior
  7. The neural tube (embryonic start point for the CNS) becomes the ____.
    Spinal Cord
  8. The primary vesicles in the neural tube give rise to the _____ brain vesicles.
  9. The primary vesicles in the neural tube give rise to the secondary brain vesicles. 

    The forebrain divides into . . .
    The Midbrain . . .
    The hindbrain divides into . . .
    • Telencephalon and Diencephalon(inter brain)
    • Stays the same; remains undivided
    • Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
  10. Each of the five secondary vesicles then develops rapidly to produce the major structures of the adult ____.
  11. The telencephalon sprouts two lateral swellings which become the ____.
  12. The diencephalon divides to form ____, ____, ____, and ____.
    • Hypothalamus 
    • Thalamus 
    • Epithalamus 
    • Retina of the eye
  13. Secondary Brain vesicles

    Mesencephalon becomes . . .
    Metencephalon becomes . . .
    Myelencephalon becomes . . .
    • Brain stem: midbrain
    • Brain stem: pons and Cerebellum
    • Brain stem: Medulla Oblongata
  14. The central cavity of the neural tube remains continues and enlarges in ____ to form fluid-filled vesicles.
  15. The ____ and ___ flexures move the forebrain toward the brain stem.
    • Midbrain
    • Cervical
  16. As the brain grows, the continued growth of the cerebral hemispheres causes their surface to crease  and fold into ____. which increase their surface area and allows for more neurons to occupy the limited space.
  17. As the brain grows, the continued growth of the cerebral hemispheres causes their surface to crease  and fold into convolutions. which increase ____ and allows for more neurons to ____.
    • Their surface area
    • Occupy the limited space
  18. What are the 4 adult brain regions?
    • Cerebral hemispheres
    • Diencephalon
    • Brain Stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata) 
    • Cerebellum
  19. The gray matter of the CNS consists of short, ____ neurons and neuron body bodies. The white matter is composed of _____ and non-____ axons.
    • Non-myelinated
    • myelinated and non-myelinated
  20. The basic pattern of the CNS is a central cavity surrounded by ____ matter, external to which is ____ matter.
    • Grey
    • White
  21. The brain stem has additional ___ matter nuclei scattered within the ____ matter.
    • Grey 
    • White
  22. The cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum have an outer layer or "bark" of ____ matter called a cortex.
  23. The cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum have an outer layer or "bark" of grey matter called a .
  24. The hollow ventricular chambers are filled with _____ fluid and lined by ____ cells, a type of neuroglia.
    • CSF
    • Ependymal
  25. The paired ___ ventricles, one deep within each hemisphere, are large C-shaped chambers hat reflect the pattern of cerebral growth.
  26. Anteriorly, the lateral ventricles lie close together, separated only by a thin membrane called the ____.
    Septum Pellucidum
  27. Each lateral ventricle communicates with the narrow ____ ventricle in the diencephalon via a channel called an _____.
    • Third 
    • Interventricular foramen
  28. The third ventricle is continuous with the fourth ventricle via a canal-like _____ that runs through the midbrain.
    Cerebral aqueduct
  29. Three openings mark the walls of the fourth ventricle: the paired _____ in its side walls and the ____ in its roof. There apertures connect the ventricles to the _____ space.
    • Lateral apertures 
    • Median aperture
    • Subarachnoid
  30. The subarachnoid space is a fluid-filled space surrounding the ___.
  31. The ____ form the superior part of the brain.
    Cerebral hemispheres
  32. Elevated ridges of the brain tissue are called?
    Shallow grooves are called ?
    • Gyri 
    • Sulci
  33. Deeper grooves in the cerebral hemispheres are called?
    Fissures, separate large regions of the brain
  34. The most prominent gyri and sulci are important ____ landmarks that are similar in all humans.
  35. The _____ fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres.
    Medial Longitudinal
  36. What fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below?
    Transverse cerebral fissure
  37. Several sulci divide each hemisphere into five lobes-
    Name them.
    • Frontal
    • Parietal 
    • Occipital 
    • Temporal 
    • Insula
  38. The ___ sulcus, which lies in the frontal plane, separates the frontal and the parietal lobes.
  39. Bordering the central sulcus are the _____ anteriorly, and the _____ posteriorly.
    • Precentral gyrus 
    • Postcentral gyrus
  40. The ____ sulcus located more posteriorly on the medial surface of the hemisphere,separates the occipital and parietal lobe.
    Parieto-occipital sulcus
  41. The ____ sulcus outlines the flap-like temporal lobe and separates it from the parietal and frontal lobes.
  42. The insula is buried deep within the ____ sulcus and forms part of its floor.
  43. Each cerebral hemispheres  have 3 basic regions.

    Name them.
    • Superficial Cerebral cortex of gray matter. 
    • Internal White Matter
    • Basal nuclei, island of gray matter situated deep within the white matter.
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A&P 1 Lecture
2016-12-06 12:44:50
anatomy physiology

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