A&P 1 Test 4

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  1. Generation of a resting membrane potential depends on 

    1. Differneces in ___ and ___ concentrations inside and outside of the cell.
    2. Differences in ____ of the plasma membrane to those ions.
    • K+ 
    • Na+
    • Permeability
  2. The ____pumps maintian the concentration gradiants of their elements across the membrane.
    Na+K+
  3. More K+ diffuses ___ than Na+ diffuses __ because the resting membrane is 25X more.
    • Out
    • In
  4. Maintenance of the resting membrane potential is possible due to ____.
    • ATP expenditure of the neuron
    • The actions o the sodium-potassium pump
  5. Membrane potentials that act as signals : ____, ____, ____.
    • Poloraization
    • Depolarization
    • Hyperpolarization
  6. Neurons use changes in their membrane potentials as '_____' to detect or recieve, integrate, and send information.
    Communication signals
  7. Neuron changes come from anything that chances ___ concentrations on either side of the membrane or anything that changes ion ___ across a membrane.
    • Ion
    • Pereability
  8. Only permeability changes are important for transferring ____.
    Information
  9. Types of signals that can be generated  are
    Graded Potential and Action potential
  10. Graded Potentials are incoming signals operating over ___ distances. 
    i.e. dendrites to cell bodies.
    Short
  11. Action potentials are ___ distance signals of axons .
    Long
  12. Changes relative to the resting membrane potential are either 


    Depolarize: ____ potential (more postive) i.e. -70mV to -40mV

    Hyperpolarize: ____ potential ( more Neg.)
    ie. -70mV to -90 mV
    • Reduced 
    • Increase
  13. How does a depolarization of the membrane affect the charge?
    Becomes more Positive
  14. What does a hyperpolarization membrane affect the charge?
    More Neg.
  15. During Depolarization there is an increased permeability to ___.

    Hyperpolarization increases membrane permeability to ___ or __.
    • Na+
    • K+
    • Cl-
  16. Graded potential are ____, local changes( shits) in membrane potential: Depolarization or hyperpolarization signals. 

    ____ opens gaed ion channels.
  17. Short 
    Stimulus
  18. Graded potentials are named according to ____ and ____.
    • Location
    • Function
  19. Postsynaptic potential: neurons graded potential

    Stimulated by a _____.
    Neurotransmitter
  20. Depolarization: a small patch of the membrane ( red area) has become depolarized. 
    Spread of depolarization: the local currents that are created depolarize adjacent membrane areas and allow the wave of depolarization to ___.
    Spread
  21. Decay of membrane potential with distance:

    Because current is lost through the leaky plasma membrane, the voltage ____ with distance from the stimulus ( the voltage is ___ ) Consequently, graded potential are ___ - distance signals.
    • Declines 
    • Decremental
    • Short
  22. Degrade of graded potential is rapid, as charge is lost across the ____. But short distance signals are critial for initialing an _____.
    • Membrane
    • Action Potential
  23. Action potentials occur only in ___ and ____.
    • Nerves
    • Muscles
  24. Action potential is a brief change in membrane potential in a patch of membrane that is ____ by local currents. Totals change in charge is ____ mV.
    • Depolarized 
    • 100
  25. During action potential's repolarization there is a ___ outflow and during hyperpolarization the ___ continues to flow out.
    • K+
    • K+
  26. During action potentials, the membrane permeability depends on its membrane ___ and vise Versa.
    Potential
  27. At rest, only ____ channels for Na+ and K+ are open; maintaining the resting membrane potential.
    Leakage
  28. The key players in an action potential are the _____ channals.
    Voltage-gated
  29. Voltage-gated Na+ channels have ___ gates and alternate between ___ different states.
    • 2
    • 3
  30. Voltage-gated K+ channels have ___ gate and ___ states.
    • One 
    • Two
  31. Voltate gated Na+ channels are closed during ____ states, and open by ____ .
    • Resting State
    • Depolarization
  32. Voltage-gated K+ channels are closed during ___, and open during ___.
    • Resting State 
    • Depolarization
  33. Neurons generally repolarize once the membrane potential reaches approximately +30 mV because . . .
    Voltage-gated K+ channel gates open
  34. Action potential is generated at the ___ .
    Axon Hillock
  35. In Action potential, ions move ___; establishing a current flow & opening a ____ channel.
    • Laterally
    • Local 
    • Voltage-gated channel.
  36. Action potential:
    Original channel is ____ thus propagation is away from the point of origin and in one diection only.
    Hyperpolarized
  37. Action potentials move in one direction from the point of origin

    After AP, Na+ channels _____.
    Inactivated
  38. During action potentials, there is a Na+ influx during ____. and a K+ during ____.
    • Depolarization
    • Repolarization
  39. For axon to fire, depolarization must reach ___.
    Threshold: that voltage at which the AP is triggered.
  40. Graded Potentials may be ___-threshold.
    Sub
  41. An action potential either happens completely, or it ____ happen at all. 

    But once generated, the ___ does not vary( all APs are identical).
    • Does not 
    • Intensity
  42. During refractory periods 
    Voltage-gated Na+ channels are ___. Neurons cannot respond to ___.
    • Open
    • Another stimulus
  43. During absolute refractory period, 

    Time form ___ of Na+ channels until ___ of the channels. 
    Ensures that _____ and enforces ____ transmission.
    • Opening 
    • Resetting 
    • All-or-none event
    • One-way
  44. Relative refractory periods, 

    Inside of membrane is more ___ than resting . . . so ___ of AP generation is elevated.
    • Negative 
    • Threshold
  45. During the relative refractory period, the ___ is substantially elevated and exceptionally ___ stimuli could trigger action potentials.
    • Threshold
    • Strong
  46. Conduction velocities in Axon depend on what two factors?
    Axon diameter: big=faster



    • Degree of myelination: 
    • -No myelin: slow, continous
    • Saltatory: mylenated
  47. In bare plasma membrane, voltage ____. Without volage-gated channels, as on a dendrite, voltage ___ because current leaks across the membrane.
    • Decays
    • Decays
  48. In non-myelinated axons, conduction is ___.
    Slow
  49. IN myelinated axons, APs are generated only in the ____ and appear to jump rapidly from gap to gap.
    Myelin sheath gaps
  50. _____ AP:
    AP travels in one direction because it jumps to the next gap the Na+ channels are inactivated.
    Refractory
  51. A local current produces a 'graded' depolaization that brings the ____ at the next node to ____.
    • Axolemma
    • Threshold
  52. Information gets between neurons via ____. 

    _____: axon to dendrite
    _____: axon to cell body.
    • Synapes
    • Axodendritic synapses
    • Axosomatic synapes
  53. Most neurons function as ____ and postsynaptic neurons.
    Presynaptic
  54. 2 types of synapses:

    ____: (rare)
    ____: (common)
    • Electrical 
    • Chemical; release of neurotransmitters into a synaptic cleft
  55. Chemical synapses transmit signals from one neuron to another using ______.
    Neurotransmitters.
  56. Neurotransmitter effects are _____ by reuptake throught proteins, enzymatic degradation, or diffusion away from the synapse.
    Terminated
  57. Postsynaptic potentials ____ or ____ the receiving neuron
    • Excite 
    • Inhibit
  58. Neurotransmitter receptors cause ____ potentials that vary in ____ with

    1: ____ of neurotransmitter released

    2: ___ neurotransmitter stays in synaptic cleft
    • Graded potentials 
    • Strength
    • Amount
    • Time
  59. 2 Types of chemical synapses

    1: ___ Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)

    2: ___ Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
    • Excitatory 
    • Inhibitory
  60. An excitatory postsynaptic potential is a local _____ of the postsynaptic membrane.

    Bring neurons ____ to AP threshold.
    • Depolarization
    • Closer
  61. Excitatory Postsynaptic potentials:


    Neurotransmitters binding opens chemically gated ion channels, allowing ___ and ___ to pass at the same time.
  62. Na+
    K+
  63. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are _____.
    Hyperpolarlized
  64. Generally speaking, opening chloride channels in the postsynaptic membrane  will result in an _______.
    inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  65. A single EPSP ___ induce an AP
    cannot
  66. EPSPs can ___ (add together) to influence the '___ neuron’

    IPSPs can also summate, but ___ the probability
    • Summate
    • Postsynaptic 
    • Reduce
  67. Most neurons receive both ‘excitatory and inhibitory’ inputs from thousands of other neurons
    Only if EPSPs ____ & bring to it threshold will an AP be generated
    predominate
  68. 2 types of summation:
    Temporal: 1 or more presynsaptic neurons transmit impulses in rapid-fire. increased frequency

    Spatial: Postsynaptic neurons stimulated by a large number of terminals at the same time.
  69. Chemicals used for neural transmittion are classified ____ or ___.
    • Chemically 
    • Functionally
  70. Functionally classified Chemicals:

    Excitatory or Inhibitory
    Direct or indirect (ion channels or via 2nd messengers)

    Ex., Direct: acetylcholine (excitatory, EPSP); Indirect: norepinephrine (either), Substance P (excitatory), endorphins (inhibitory), nitric oxide (either)
    Depends . . .
    on type of receptor &/or G-protein present
  71. Neurotransmitter Function: Direct promotes ___ in membrane potentials. 1: Channel-linked (_____) receptors
    2: ____-gated ions channels
    3: 
    Rapid, simple, brief.
    • Changes Ionotropic
    • Ligand
  72. Neurotransmitter Function: Indirect through ___ messenger systems 

    G-protein coupled (___) receptorsComplex, slow, prolonged
    • Secondary 
    • Metabotropic
  73. Neurons function in ‘___.
    Groups
  74. 1st level of neural integration:

    Neuronal Pools

    Functional groups of neurons

    ‘___ ’ incoming information received from receptors or other neuronal pools; ‘Process’, &

    ‘____’ information to other destinations
    • Integrate 
    • Forward
  75. 1st level of neural integration:


    Circuits

    Patterns of synaptic connections in neuronal pools

    Determine pool’s . . .
    functional capabilities
  76. What occurs in the discharge zone of a neuronal pool?
    Neurons are most likely to generate impulses.
  77. Diverging circuit:
    ___input, ___ outputs.

    ____ circuit
    • 1
    • Many
    • Amplifying
  78. Converging Circuit:

    ____inputs, ____output.

    _____ circuit
    • Many
    • 1
    • Concentrating
  79. Reverberating circuits (_____)
    control _____ activity.
    • Oscillating
    • Rhythmic
  80. Parallel after-discharge circuit: 
    Arranged in ___ arrays that eventually ____ on a single output cell. 

    Impulses reach output cell at ____ times.
    • Parallel 
    • Converge 
    • Different
  81. Serial Processing for a simple reflex arc: 
    1-5?
    • Receptor 
    • Sensory Neuron
    • Integration Center
    • Motor Neuron 
    • Effector
  82. Patterns of Neural Processing: 


    Serial: Input travels along ___ pathway to a specific destination


    Works in a ‘predictable’ all-or-nothing manner

    Ex., reflex arc (spinal reflexes)
    One
  83. Patterns of Neural Processing: 

    Parallel: Inputs ___ into many ____ pathways

    Ex., higher level thought processing

    A ___ neuron sends information along  several pathways

    So a large amount of information is processed more quickly
    • Separated 
    • Different 
    • Single

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Author:
fjn900
ID:
326554
Filename:
A&P 1 Test 4
Updated:
2016-12-07 02:02:26
Tags:
anatomy physiology
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