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The Mediastinum is divided into 4 sections:
- 1. Superior
- 2. Anterior
- 3. Middle
- 4. Posterior
Superior portion of the Mediastinum
Lies above the sternal angle to the inferior border of the 4th thoracic vertebrae.
- AO Arch
- Innominate A
- Innominate V'(s)
- CCA Prox
- Subclavian A'(s)
- Subclavian V'(s)
Anterior portion of the Mediastinum
A very small section that lies anterior to the heart or pericardial sac.
- Lymph nodes
- Small blood vessels.
Middle portion of the Mediastinum
- Asc AO
- Terminal end of SVC
- Pulmonary A
- Terminal parts fo the Rt & Lt Pulmonary V'(s)
- Phrenic nerves
Posterior portion of the Mediastinum
- Desc Thoracic AO
- Rt & Lt Main Bronchi
- Azygous V'(s)
- Hemiazygous V'(s)
- Splenic nerves
- Thoracic lymph duct
The Sternum is divided into what 3 parts?
- Manubrium (Top portion)
- Body (Middle portion)
- Xiphoid Process (Bottom portion)
What are the 4 muscles of respiration?
Aid in inspiration by elevating the 1st & 2nd ribs.
External Intercostal muscles:
11 pairs elevate the ribs durin inspiration and increase lateral and anterioposterior dimensions of the thorax.
Internal Intercostal muscles:
11 pairs serve as antagonists to the external intercostals. They decrease the lateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the thoracic cavity by drawing adjacent ribs together during forced expiration.
Most important muscle of inspiration.
Hearts lie more _____ in adolescents and slender patients. Whereas in heavier or elderly patients, the heart lies more _____.
Average length: 12 cm
Greatest width: 8-9 cm
Smallest width: 6 cm
- Males 280-340 grams OR 10.58 oz
- Females 230-280 grams OR 8.8 oz
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