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What does the somatic sensory nervous system control?
Sensory information from the skin and skeletal muscle.
What does the visceral sensory nervous system control?
Sensory information from the smooth muscle of organs, cardiac muscle, and sweat glands and arrector pilli muscles of the skin.
What cranial nerves receive taste sensory information?
What path does taste sensory information take to the brain?
Through CN'S VII (facial) & IX (glossopharyngeal), to the thalamus, ending at the insula.
What cranial nerve receives smell sensory information?
CN I, olfactory.
Where are the smell sensory receptors?
Superior Nasal Conchi
What type of cells are smell sensory receptors?
Where is smell integrated in the brain?
What are the three layers of the eye?
- 1) Fibrous Tunic
- 2) Vascular Tunic
- 3) Neural Tunic
What does the fibrous tunic of the eye consist of?
The sclera, which is dense irregular collagen fibers.
The cornea, which is regularly arranged collagen fibers that are glass clear to allow light to pass through.
Where is light reflected in the eye?
The Fibrous Tunic
What does the vascular tunic consist of?
- Blood vessels and loose areolar connective tissue.
- Ciliary bodies
What are ciliary bodies?
Muscular extensions of the choroid with ligaments connected to the lenses of the eye.
What shape does the lense take for different types of vision?
- Far vision: thin, stretched. Does not distort light.
- Near vision: thick lense, relaxed. Bends light waves toward back of eye.
What does the iris consist of?
- Sphincter papillae muscle: constricts pupil.
- Dilator papillae muscle: dilates pupil.
What are the nervous systems connected to the papillae of the iris?
- Sphincter papillae is parasympathetic.
- Dilator papillae is sympathetic.
What gives the iris color?
Melanocytes: more means brown eye color, less means blue eye color.
What is the neural tunic?
What does the retina consist of?
Photoreceptor cells, rods and cones.
What do rods in the eye integrate?
Light and dark, contrast. Very light sensitive.
What do the cones integrate in the eye?
Color and detail. Require higher light level.
What is the function of the ora serata?
It has a high level of melanin to absorb stray light and avoid glare.
What is the gelatinous ball in the eye called?
What is the canal that runs through the vitreous humor and what is its function?
Hyaloid canal, allows fluid to pass through the eye.
What is the function of the vitreous humor of the eye?
Gives back support to the lense
What are floaters?
As you age the vitreous humor degrades, causing debris and fluid called floaters.
What is the fluid in the eye called?
What does the anterior cavity consist of?
The anterior chamber and posterior chamber.
Where is the anterior chamber in the eye?
Behind the cornea and in front of the iris.
Where is the posterior chamber in the eye?
Behind the iris and in front of the lense.
Where does the aqueous humor come from in the eye?
Capillaries in the ciliary processes.
Where does the aqueous humor in the eye drain into?
Canal of schlemm.
Where is the canal of schlemm?
At the junction between the cornea and sclera.
What causes glaucoma?
High interocular pressure from a lack of drainage of aqueous humor in the eye. This also blocks off the blood supply and can cause blindness.
What supplies the blood supply to the retina?
Retinal artery and vein.
What is the fovea centralis?
Area of 100% cones in the eye, greatest amount of detail in this area.
What is the path an integrated image takes through the eye to the brain?
Light passes through the neural retina and hits the pigmented layer in the back of the eye. The light then causes and action potential on the rods and cones, which synapse with bipolar neurons, traveling to ganglion cells at the most anterior that form the optic nerve fibers that travel out the back of the eye. They then travel to the thalamus, then to the occipital lobe of the brain.
What are the 3 parts of the ear?
What does the external ear consist of?
- The auricle or ear lobe, made of elastic cartilage.
- External acoustic meatus or ear canal.
What is sound?
Compression waves of air molecules.
What is the pitch range for sound?
Low pitch @ 500 hertz, to high pitch @ 20,000 hertz.
What is the function of the tympanic membrane?
Air compression waves hit it, sending sound waves into the inner ear.
Where is ear wax created and what is its function?
- From glands at the back of the external auditory meatus.
- It contains anti-bacterial cells and keeps the ear drum moist.
What does the middle (tympanic) ear consist of?
- The auditory ossicles:
What is the function of the auditory ossicles?
Transmit sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear.
How do the auditory ossicles articulate?
How do changes in elevation affect your ear?
Causes pressure changes on the tympanic membrane that can rupture.
What is the purpose of the eustachian tube?
Allows pressure to escape from the middle ear. Yawning and chewing gum open the tube.
Why are ear infections more common in children than adults?
In children the eustachian tube is horizontal, which allows bacteria to move up the tube more easily.
Where is the inner ear located?
Petrous portion of the temporal bone.
What is the bony labyrinth?
- Inside inner ear:
- Semi-circular canals in 3 planes (horizontal, sagittal, oblique).
What is the function of the vestibule?
Monitors orientation of the head in space for equilibrium and head rotation.
What cranial nerve integrates sound?
Cranial nerve VIII, vestibulocochlear.
What is inside the bony labyrinth of the ear and what does it consist of?
- The membraneous labyrinth.
- Semi-circular ducts in canals.
- Utricle and saccule in vestibule.
- Cochlear duct in cochlea.
What fluid fills the inner ear?
- A fluid similar to lymph called perilymph in the bony labyrinth and endolymph in the membraneous labyrinth.
- It is a more watery fluid and different ion content (high potassium).
What is the sensory expansion in the vestibule?
- Otolith organ.
- Hair cells with cilia connected by dendrites to the cranial nerve.
- Layer of gel containing calcium carbonate (otoliths) that give the gel weight sits on the cilia.
What happens when you bend stereocilia of hair cells?
It opens potassium channels, depolarizing the hair cell and causing an action potential.
What does the vestibule in the ear integrate?
- Head position
What does the utricle of the vestibule integrate?
What does the saccule of the vestibule integrate?
What is the sensory expansion in the semi-circular ducts?
What is inside the ampullae of the semi-circular ducts?
Cupulla that contains the hair cells.
Does the endolymph of the ampullae contain otolith?
Explain how sound travels through the cochlea.
Sounds waves travel through the scala vestibuli, hit the vestibular membrane, through the cochlear duct, hit the basilar membrane with hair cells which opens ion channels, travels through scala tympani and out the round window.
What are the accessory glands for the digestive system?
- Salivary (parotid, submandibular, sublingual); secretes saliva.
- Liver; secretes bile.
What is the frenulum?
The membrane from the floor of the oral cavity to the tongue.
Where is the parotid salivary gland located?
Across the masses terrible and out the second molar.
Where is the submandibular salivary gland located?
Out the sides of the frenulum.
Where is the sublingual salivary gland located?
Out entire length of the frenulum.
What are the two cell types found in salivary glands?
- Mucous cells that secrete a protein polysaccharide called mucin.
- Serous cells that contain secretory vessels of serous fluid containing enzymes.
What are myoepithelial cells?
They are muscle cells that surround salivary gland acini and squeeze the fluid out and into the lumen.
What type of tissue is a salivary gland duct?
Cuboidal to columnar.
What percentage of serous to mucous cells do each of the salivary glands have?
- Parotid: 100% serous
- Submandibular: 50/50
- Sublingual: 100% mucous
What are the 4 main layers of the GI tract?
- 1st (inner): mucosa
- 2nd: submucosa
- 3rd: muscle
- 4th: serous membrane
What are the layers of the mucosal layer of the gi tract?
- Lining epithelium (stratified squamous non-keratinized or simple columnar)
- Lamina propria (loose areolar CT)
- Muscularis mucosae (thin layer of smooth muscle)
What can you find in the lamina propria of the gi tract?
- Mast cells
- Elastic fiber
- Reticular fiber
- Liquid ground substance
What can you find in the submucosa of the gi tract?
- Larger blood vessels
- Lymphatic vessels
- Nerve plexus
What does the muscularis externa consist of?
2 layers of smooth muscle arranged in an inner circular layer that constricts, and an outer longitudinal layer that shortens the tube.
What is peristalsis?
Muscle contraction in the intestines that moves the food.
What are the three muscle layers in the stomach?
- Inner oblique (twist)
- Middle circular (squeeze)
- Outer longitudinal (shorten)
What is the esophagus lined by?
Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium.
What is different about the muscularis mucosa in the esophagus?
It is a basket weave arrangement, helps move food down to stomach.
How is the muscularis externa arranged in the esophagus?
- The upper 1/3 is skeletal muscle. (Somatic NS)
- Middle 1/3-1/2 is skeletal muscle and smooth muscle (ANS)
- Lower 1/3 is all smooth muscle (ANS)
What is the stomach mucosa lined with and what does it secrete?
Why does the stomach produce mucous?
It is a very alkaline mucous that neutralizes and protects the stomach lining from the high acidity of the stomach acid.
What is broken down food called in the stomach?
What are the folds inside the stomach called?
What is the purpose of rugae in the stomach?
Allows the stomach to expand during eating.
What types of cells are in the fundus of the stomach and what are their functions?
- Mucus cells, secrete mucus.
- Mucus neck cells, secrete acidic mucus.
- Parietal cells, secrete HCl.
- Chief cells, secretes pepsinogen.
- Enteroendocrine cells, secretes hormones.
What is pepsinogen and how is it activated?
It is activated by HCl creating pepsin, which breaks down protein into smaller polypeptides.
What absorbs in the stomach?
Water and lipid soluble drugs.
What are the three sections of the small intestine?
What is the folding of the intestine called?
How does the small intestine increase its surface area?
It is very long, 21 ft, and it folds into plicae circularis. The lining epithelium also folds into structures called villi. The villi then fold their plasma membranes.
What cells line the epithelium of the small intestine?
Absorptive columnar cells and mucus cells.
What is a lymphatic capillary called in the small intestine?
What is absorbed straight into the blood stream in the small intestine?
What is absorbed into the lacteals of the small intestine?
Why does the small intestine have less mucus sl cells than the stomach?
It is closer to neutral PH
What is a crypt of Lieberkuhn?
A down folding of the epithelium associated with secretory glands.
What is the last step to break down molecules in the small intestine?
Enzymes in the micro villi. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, breaking down food in duodenum and the enzymes finish the breakdown making the absorptive cells able to absorb the nutrients
What is the shape of the large intestine?
From the ileocecal valve: cecum, up the ascending limb, turning at the right colic (hepatic) flexure, into the transverse limb, turning at the left colic (splenic) flexure, down the descending limb into the sigmoid colon, out the rectum and anus.
What are the individual pouches of the large intestine?
What is the function of the large intestine?
Absorb water and salts.
What are the fatty appendages on the large intestine?
What is the purpose of the large number of bacteria in the large intestine?
They release vitamins B and A.
What is the function of the appendix?
It is filled with lymphatic nodules, which surveys immunity in the colon.
What are hemorrhoids?
When the venous plexus of the rectum is swollen.
What is the purpose of intestinal stem cells?
They form into transit-amplifying cells that then differentiate into absorptive, goblet, enteroendocrine, and paneth cells at the top of the crypt.
What is the function of the paneth cells and where are they located?
They secrete anti-bacterial enzymes and are located at the bottom of the crypts of intestinal villi.
What can be found in intestinal crypts?
- Transit-amplifying cells
- Stem cells
- Paneth cells
- Absorptive cells
- Goblet cells
- Enteroendocrine cells
What are the functions of the liver?
- Kupffer cells phagocytize microbes from the blood stream.
- Glucose metabolism (low glucose glycogen breakdown; high glucose stores glucose)
- Regulate cholesterol
- Convert fatty acids to ketones
- Synthesize triglycerides
- Produce and secrete bile
- Break down drugs and toxic water insoluble molecules and hormones
- Produce plasma proteins
Where are Kupffer cells located?
What is biliruben?
A neurotoxin waste product of bile production.
What are bile salts?
Bile product that is necessary for fat digestion.
Why are plasma proteins important in the blood?
Makes blood viscous and holds in water, creating osmotic gradient.
What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
What is the function of the gall bladder?
What is the hilum of the liver?
Where bile ducts, veins and arteries enter the liver.
What is in the portal triad and where are they located?
- Hepatic portal vein
- Hepatic artery
- Bile duct
- Lymphatic vessel
- Located at the corners of the liver lobule
What type of cells line bike ducts?
Simple cuboidal epithelium
What are bile canaliculi?
Bile tubes that transfer bile between hepatocytes.
What type of cells are hepatocytes?
Columnar with microvilli
What is in between the sinusoid and hepatocytes in the liver?
Space of disse containing stellate cells, which store fat and vitamin A.
What happens to stellate cells during cerosis of the liver?
It behaves like a fibroblast secreting collagen, creating scarring.
Trace the path bile takes in the liver.
- It is created in the hepatocytes
- Travels through canaliculi to the bile duct
- Out the right and left hepatic ducts
- To the common hepatic duct
- That branches off to the cystic duct toward the gall bladder
- Which continues into the common bile duct
- Exiting the duodenum papillae into the duodenum.
What does the pancreas create and where do they enter the digestive system?
- Digestive juices
- Pancreatic duct to the duodenum papillae
Where is the sphincter of Oddi?
At the duodenum papillae after the common bile duct.
What happens when food enters the duodenum?
Neural and hormonal signals cause the gall bladder to contract and the sphincter of Oddi to relax and open, allowing bile and pancreatic juice to enter the duodenum.
What is jaundice?
- When a large gall stone blocks the bile duct system.
- Causing an excess of bilirubin to be reabsorbed in your body, causing a yellow tint to your skin.
- Reabsorption in gall bladder causes mineral crystals to precipitate and cause stones.
What percentage of the pancreas is exocrine?
99%, 1% endocrine
What are the endocrine functions of the pancreas?
Islets of langerhans, clusters of cells, that produce insulin (lowers glucose in blood stream) and glucagon (raises glucose in blood stream)
What does the respiratory system consist of?
- The oral and nasal cavities
- Terminal and respiratory bronchioles
What muscles are used during forced respiration?
What are the nasal sinuses lined with?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
What are the three parts of the pharynx and their boundaries?
- Nasopharynx from the tip of the hard palate (palantine bone) to the tip of the uvula.
- Oropharynx from the tip of the uvula to the hyoid bone.
- Laryngopharynx from the hyoid bone to vocal fold.
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
In the nasopharynx
Where are the palantine and lingual tonsil located?
What are the laryngeal cartilages and what are they made of?
- Anterior: thyroid cartilage, hyaline (suspended by hyoid bone by dense regular CT)
- Posterior: cricoid cartilage, hyaline (connected to thyroid with CT)
- Above cricoid: arytenoid cartilage, hyaline
- Above arytenoid: corniculate cartilages, elastic
- Epiglottal cartilage, elastic cartilage behind thyroid
- Cuneiform cartilages suspended in membraneous folds, elastic
What is the laryngeal prominance?
Adams apple, tip of thyroid cartilage
What is the function of the arytenoid cartilages?
They control the tension on the vocal cords.
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Folds down onto cricoid cartilage to close off airway from food and liquid.
What covers the laryngeal walls?
What are the vocal folds made of?
What is the glottis
The space between the vocal folds
As you move down the respiratory tract, what happens to the structure of the trachea?
- Cartilage goes from rings to broken pieces to no cartilage
- Epithelial lining goes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to simple squamous epithelium.
What lines the terminal bronchioles?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What lines the respiratory bronchioles?
Simple squamous epithelium
What are alveoli in the lungs?
Where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs with the blood
What surrounds alveoli in the lungs?
Nets of capillaries
What types of cells can you find in alveoli and what are their functions?
- Type 1 cells: simple squamous epithelium
- Type 2 cells: secrete surfactant (surface active agent) that helps break down hydrogen bonds in water. Helps keep alveoli from staying closed.
- Pulmonary macrophage: moves around looking for bad things
What happens during respiratory distress?
Alveoli stay closed.
What does the respiratory membrane consist of?
- Capillary endothelial cells
- Alveolar type 1 cells
- Basement membranes of both layers in between.
What is emphysema?
Damage to alveolar walls, no gas exchange and no respiratory membrane.
What does the urinary system consist of?
- 2 kidneys
- 2 ureters
What are the functions of the kidney?
- Regulate water and ion concentration in the blood plasma.
- Regulate water volume for blood pressure.
- Remove nitrogenous wastes resulting from protein breakdown/metabolism (urea, uric acid, ammonia)
- Remove hormones, drugs, foreign non-biological substances from bloodstream
What is osmotic shock?
When there is a wrong concentration of ions in the blood.
What important ions do the kidneys regulate in the blood?
What is ptosis of the kidney?
What are the layers of the kidney?
- From outside:
- renal fascia
- Adipose capsule
- Renal capsule
- Renal pelvis
What is the renal papillae?
The tip of the pyramids where urine drains out of the kidney.
What are the major and minor calyces of the kidney?
Branches of the ureter that collect urine.
What are the arteries of the kidney, in order from largest to smallest?
- Renal artery
- Interlobar arteries
- Archuate arteries
- Interlobular arteries
- Afferent arterioles
What is a glomerulus?
A ball of capillaries in the kidney that is surrounded by Bowman's capsule.
Why is the efferent arteriole smaller than the afferent arteriole in the kidney?
Causes back pressure into the glomerulus.
What happens in Bowman's capsule?
- Filtration of blood plasma.
- Nutrients from digestion
- Nitrogenous wastes
- Foreign molecules
What happens in the proximal convoluted tubule of a nephron?
- Reabsorption of:
- Nutrients back into the blood stream.
How is reabsorption achieved in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron?
What is the purpose of the descending limb of the loop of Henle?
Water diffuses out, increases concentration of filtrate.
What is the purpose of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?
Actively pumps sodium out of the plasma, helping to maintain a proper sodium and water concentration in the blood.
What happens in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron?
Active secretion of excess H+ and K+ into the tubule from capillary.
What does too much H+ or K+ in your blood stream cause?
Heart and muscle arrhythmia
What happens in the kidney when you are dehydrated?
The pituitary gland releases ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) which causes water pores to enter membrane of collecting duct causing more uptake of water into the blood stream.
What type of epithelial cells are the collecting duct in the kidney?
What type of epithelial cells are in the loop of Henle in the kidney?
Ranges from simple squamous (descending) to cuboidal (ascending)
What epithelium is bowmans capsule?
Simple squamous epithelium with podocytes
What are podocytes?
Cells on the inside of bowmans capsule that create a layer in the filtration membrane of a glomerulus.
Why does the proximal convoluted tubule have microvilli and the distal not?
Reabsorption happens in the proximal, distal does little reabsorption.
What is the filtration membrane, from inside out.
- Fenestrated capillary endothelium
- Basement membrane of capillary
- Podocytes with filtration slits in between their pedicles.
What is the #1 cause of kidney failure?
What are the components of the female reproductive system?
- 2 ovaries
- 2 fallopian tubes
- External genitalia
How are the ovaries connected to the uterus?
A thick collagen band called the ovarian ligament.
What are fimbrae?
Extensions of the fallopian tube that move the tube over the ovary to the cite of ovulation.
What epithelium lines the vagina?
Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
What epithelium lines the uterus?
Coliated columnar cells
What does the lining of the vagina leak?
Tissue fluid, mucous, subcutaneous fluid
What is the broad ligament?
A sheet of serous membrane that drapes over the uterus and ovaries.
What is the suspensory ligament?
An extension of the broad ligament that surrounds the gonadal veins and arteries.
What is the round ligament?
Anterior on the uterus, connects the uterus through the body wall and inguinal canal, to CT anterior to the pubic symphasis.
What is oogenesis?
Meiosis of female sex cells (egg)
What is the zona pellucida?
Gel surrounding oocyte in follicle