Biol 166

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Author:
shutterbug81
ID:
32672
Filename:
Biol 166
Updated:
2010-09-09 03:39:51
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Neurophysiology
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Description:
Neurophysiology - 1
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  1. 2 Types of Signals Neurons Use
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
  2. Chocolate Chip Cookie Analogy
    • Neurons=chocolate chips
    • Glia= rest of the cookie
  3. 4 Key Functions of Neurons
    • Process info from internal and external sources
    • Sense changes & accomodate
    • Communicate changes to other neurons
    • Command response to external changes
  4. Nissl Stain
    • Used to see neurons
    • Cresyl violet stains cell around nuclei
  5. Golgi Stain
    • Used to see neurons
    • Silver chromate
    • Used to define & visualize the cell body and neurites
  6. Cajal Stain
    • Used to see neurons
    • Used to make drawings of tissues
  7. Soma aka Perikaryan
    Cell body of neuron
  8. Dendrite & Axon maximum length
    • Dendrite= 2mm max
    • Axon= 1m max
  9. How to identify axonal projection from dendrite
    Axonal projection comes off axon at 90 degree angle
  10. Organelles of Soma
    • Nucleus
    • Rough & Smooth ER
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Mitochondria
  11. Cytoskeleton
    (3 components)
    • Microtubule
    • Microfilament
    • Neurofilament
  12. Proper names for parts of axon
    • Hillock (beginning)
    • Proper (middle)
    • Terminal (end)
  13. Difference between axon & soma
    (2 differences)
    • 1. ER doesn't extend to axon
    • 2. Protein composition is unique (due to different functions)
  14. Difference between axon terminal & hillock
    (3 differences)
    • 1. No microtubules in axon terminal
    • 2. Presence of synaptic vessicles at terminal
    • 3. Large amount of mitochondria at terminal
  15. Axoplasmic Transport
    (2 Way System)
    • 1. Anterograde: From soma to terminal
    • 2. Retrograde: From terminal to soma
  16. 2 Molecules that help move vessicles along cell
    Kinesin & Microtubules
  17. Proteins (4 Structures)
    • Primary- AA sequence
    • Secondary- Folds due to reactions between AAs
    • Tertiary- Single protein molecules
    • Quaternary- Complex of protein molecules
  18. Channel Protein
    • Quaternary structure protein
    • Separate units bind together to form channels
    • Form pore-like structure
  19. Current across membrane
    Current only occurs if ions are allowed to flow across membrane
  20. Resting Potential
    • Membrane potential across a neuronal membrane
    • Usually about -65mV
  21. Ionic Equilibrium Potential (Eion)
    When electrical potential difference balances an ionic concentration gradient
  22. Resting Membrane Potential
    (4 Key Things)
    • 1. Small change in ion concentration induces a large change in membrane potential
    • 2. Most negative charge is inside the membrane
    • 3. Ionic Driving Force- Ions are driven across membrane at a specific rate
    • 4. If a concentration difference across membrane is known for a particular ion, the equilibrium potential can be calculated.
  23. Nernst Equation
    • Eion = 2.303 RT * log [ion]out
    • nF [ion]in
  24. 2 Pumps that establish ion concentration gradient
    • 1. Sodium Potassium Pump (3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in)
    • 2. Calcium Pump (Pump CA2+ out)
  25. Potassium Channels
    • 4 Subunits
    • Only permeable to potassium ion
    • Maintains membrane potential
  26. Rising Phase of AP
    Rapid depolarization that will reach Vmax
  27. Overshoot
    When inside of cell becomes more positively charged than outside
  28. Falling Phase of AP
    Repolarization of cell
  29. Undershoot
    After hyperpolarization of cell
  30. Brainbow
    • Use transgenic molecular biology to look at fluorescent protein expression in the nervous system.
    • Different colors based on which proteins are expressed and the concentration of those proteins
  31. How Ions Re/Depolarize Cells
    • Depolarization- Influx of sodium ions
    • Repolarization- Eflux of potassium ions

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