ECHO FINAL

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  1. The mediastinum is divided into what four portions?
    • Superior
    • Anterior
    • Middle
    • Posterior
  2. Superior portion of the mediastinum lies above a plane drawn from the sternal angle to the inferior border of the 4th thoracic vertebra.

    Contains:
    • Aortic Arch
    • Innominate Veins
    • Innominate Artery
    • SVC
    • Trachea
    • Esophagus
    • CCA PROX
    • Subclavian Arteries
    • Subclavian Veins
  3. Anterior portion of the mediastinum is a very small section lying anterior ot the heart or pericardial sac.

    Contains:
    • Lymph Nodes
    • Muscles
    • Small blood vessels
  4. Middle portion of the mediastinum contains:
    • Heart
    • Pericardium
    • Asc. AO
    • Terminal end of SVC
    • Pulmonary Artery
    • Terminal parts of RT & LT Pulmonary Veins
    • Phrenic Nerves
  5. Posterior portion of the Mediastinum contains:
    • Desc. AO
    • DTA
    • RT & LT Main Bronchi
    • Esophagus
    • Azygous & Hemiazygous Veins
    • Splenic Nerves
    • Thoracic Lymph Duct
  6. What are the three components of the sternum?
    • Manubrium
    • Body OR Corpus Sternum
    • Xiphoid Process
  7. Muscles of Respiration.

    (4)
    • Scalene Muscles
    • External Intercostal Muscles
    • Internal Intercostal Muscles
    • Diaphragm
  8. The heart sits _____ in young/ slender patients, whereas older/ heavier patients the heart sits _____.
    vertically, horizontally
  9. The Eustachian Valve is associated with what vessel?
    IVC
  10. The Thebesian Valve & Chiari Network are associated with what?
    Coronary Sinus.

    (Found in the RA).
  11. The SA Node & AV Node are located within the RA.
    (Hearts electrical conduction system). 

    Automaticity.
  12. What are the differences between RV & LV?

    (7)
    RV 

    • Crescent shaped
    • Thinner walls
    • Many trabeculations
    • Moderator Band
    • Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. 
    • Lower pressure (25/5).

    LV

    • Conical shaped
    • Smoother walls
    • Lack of trabeculations
    • Thicker walls
    • 2 prominent Pap. Muscles
    • Pumps oxygen to the body.
    • Higher pressure (120/10).
  13. Tricuspid Valve has three leaflets. What are they?
    • Anterior
    • Posterior
    • Septal OR Medial
  14. Tricuspid has the largest opening.
  15. Mitral Valve has two leaflets. What are they?
    • Anterior 
    • Posterior
  16. What are the two prominent Pap. Muscles?
    • Antero-lateral
    • Postero-medial
  17. Mitral Valve leaflets can be described as having:
    Scalloped edges
  18. Pulmonic Valve has three cusps. What are they?
    • Anterior
    • Right
    • Left
  19. Aortic Valve has cusps corresponding to the origins of the Coronary Arteries. They exit off the Sinus's of Valsalva. What are they?
    • Right Coronary
    • Left Coronary
    • Non Coronary
  20. Name the layers of the heart from inner to outer.
    • Endocardium
    • Myocardium
    • Epicardium
    • Pericardial Cavity
    • Serosal Pericardium
    • Fibrous Pericardium
  21. Purpose of the Pericardium.

    (5)
    • Reduce friction.
    • Allow the heart to move freely.
    • Contains heart in the mediastinum during trauma.
    • Barrier to infection.
    • Limits the amount of distention.
  22. The heart uses about ____ % of the oxygen supplied to it.
    75%
  23. The RT Coronary A is comprised of the ______ & ______.
    • Acute Marginal - Supplies the RV.
    • Posterior Descending - Supplies the RA, free wall of RV, and LVPW.
  24. The LT Coronary A is comprised of the _____ & _____.
    • Circumflex - Supplies lateral wall of LV, LA, and sometime LVPW.
    • Anterior Descending - Supplies the septum and anterior wall.
  25. ____ - ____ % of the population is RT dominant.
    70 - 90%
  26. What are the three vessels that aid in venous drainage of the heart?
    • Great Cardiac Vein
    • Middle Cardiac Vein
    • Coronary Sinus
  27. Oxygen saturation in the ______ is the lowest in the body.
    Coronary Sinus
  28. ____ events precede ____ events.

    A) 70 - 90%
    B) electrical, mechanical
    C) mechanical, electrical
    D) 75%
    B) electrical, mechanical
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. ____ heart events start first and last longer than ____ heart events.

    A) RT, LT
    B) mechanical
    C) electrical
    D) LT, RT
    A) RT, LT
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The first heart sound S1 is due to what valve closure?
    AV
  31. The second heart sound S2 is due to what valve closure?
    Aortic
  32. Myoglobin:

    Oxygen binding protein found in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle. (Not necessarily cardiac specific).
    • Rapid release within 2-4 hrs.
    • Levels peak within 6 hrs.
    • Levels return to NL within 24-36 hrs.
  33. CK-MB / CPK (Creatine Kinase. Creatine Phosphokinase).

    Proteins found in heart, brain, and skeletal tissue.
    • Levels rise when mucle or heart cells are injured.
    • CK-MB (Myocardial Band) is a total percentage of CPK.
    • Detected within 1-6 hrs after initial symptoms of MI.
    • Levels peak at 6-9 hrs.
    • Levels return to NL within 36 hrs.
    • False positives such as trauma OR exercise are possible.
  34. Troponin T/I:

    Specific proteins found in cardiac tissue.
    • Levels increase 2-12 hrs after infarction.
    • Levels stay elevated for 7-10 days.
    • Levels indicate the amound of damage.
    • Unable to detect reinfarction.
  35. B- Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
    • Amino Acid Polypeptide released from heart muscle in response to increased ventricular wall stress. 
    • Stress-excessive stretching of cardiac myocytes.
    • Used as an indicator of heart failure.

Card Set Information

Author:
jrw10
ID:
326739
Filename:
ECHO FINAL
Updated:
2016-12-12 05:13:23
Tags:
ECHO
Folders:
ECHO
Description:
ECHO
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