MS I: Foot and ankle biomechanics

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  1. What structures make up the ankle mortise?
    • Deep socket
    • Medial and lateral malleoli
    • Distal tibia
    • Trochlea of talus
  2. What makes up the structural support of the ankle mortise?
    • Lateral side - fibula, lateral malleolus
    • Medial side - deltoid ligaments
  3. What are the closed vs open packed positions of the talocrural joint?
    • Closed: dorsiflexion, especially in weight bearing
    • Open: plantarflexion
  4. What are the talocrural arthrokinematics of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion?
    • Plantarflexion: talus on tibia, roll and slide in opposite directions, achilles tendon on slack, anterior capsule/ligaments taut
    • Dorsiflexion: talus on tibia, roll and slide in opposite directions, achilles tendon taut, anterior capsule/ligaments on slack
  5. What ligaments are taut and what ligaments are slack in weight bearing dorsiflexion/medial rotation?
    • Slack: anterior talofibular ligament, tibiotalar and tibocalcaneal fibers (deltoid ligament)
    • Taut: posterior talofibular ligament, tibionavicular (deltoid ligament)
  6. What ligaments are taut and slack in weight bearing plantarflexion/lateral rotation?
    • Slack: tibionavicular fibers (deltoid ligament), posterior talofibular ligament
    • Taut: anterior talofibular ligament, tibiotalar and tibiocalcaneal fibers (deltoid ligament)
  7. What are the characteristics of the ankle joint capsule?
    • Membranous capsule is thin except on medial side
    • Capsule is reinforced by anterior/posterior talofibular ligaments, calcaneofibular ligament, and deltoid ligament
  8. What are the posterior ligaments of the subtalar joint?
    • Interosseous ligament
    • Cervical ligament
  9. Name the lateral ligaments of the foot/ankle and their function
    • Anterior talofibular
    • Posterior talofibular
    • Calcaneofibular
    • Bifurcate ligament
    • Resist excessive inversion
    • Limit anterior/posterior displacement of the talus on tibia
    • Image Upload
  10. Name the medial ligaments of the foot/ankle and their function
    • Deltoid ligament: tibionavicular, tibiotalar, tibiocalcaneal fibers
    • Spring ligament
    • Image Upload
  11. What is the spring ligament and why is it important?
    • Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
    • Holds the head of the navicular in place
    • Main supporter of medial longitudinal¬†arch
    • Excessive prolonged pressure can lead to fallen arches
  12. What are the arches of the foot and why are they important?
    • Transverse arch
    • Medial and lateral longitudinal arches
    • Create a dome shape to the foot (most architecturally sound form)
  13. What are the major articulations and movements of the foot?
    • Subtalar joint
    • Transverse tarsal joints
    • Tasrometatarsal joints
    • Metatarsophalangeal joints
    • Interphalangeal joints
  14. What are the movements that occur at the subtalar joint?
    • Inversion and eversion
    • Allows for adaptive positioning
  15. What are the foot motions that make up supination?
    • Subtalar inversion
    • Forefoot adduction
    • Plantarflexion
  16. What are the foot motions that make up pronation?
    • Subtalar eversion
    • Forefoot abduction
    • Dorsiflexion
  17. What are the foot motions of the transverse tarsal joints?
    • Talonavicular joint: inversion/eversion
    • Calcaneocuboid: limited motion, som abduction/adduction
    • Allows for adaptations necessary for ground terrain
  18. What are the motions of the tarsometatarsal joints?
    • Gliding and sliding
    • Permits pivoting and side to side movements of the foot
  19. What are the motions of the metatarsophalangeal joints?
    • Flexion and extension
    • Movements important in propulsion
  20. What are the motions of the interphalangeal joints?
    • Flexion and extension
    • Controls push off and movement of the COM over the foot
  21. What are the functions of the intrinsic muscles of the foot?
    • Most are located on the planar surface of the foot
    • 4 layers
    • Span calcaneous to base of proximal phalanges
    • binding rod for longitudinal arch
  22. What are the functions of the extrinsic muscles of the foot?
    • Maintain arches
    • Stabilize joints
    • Shock absorption
    • Control toes
  23. What are some pathologies of the foot?
    • Plantar faciitis: overstretched fascia creaste microtears
    • Bursitis: inflamed bursa
    • Shin splints: stronger PF muscles than DF muscles
    • Pes cavus: high arch, shortens foot, pressure on MT heads
    • Hallux vagus: bunion due to sesamoid shift and thickened MT head
    • March foot: hairline fracture across 2nd MT

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
326984
Filename:
MS I: Foot and ankle biomechanics
Updated:
2016-12-19 00:49:17
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Foot ankle
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DPT: MS I
Description:
Foot and ankle biomechanics
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