Science - Space

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  1. What is astronomy?
    This is the study of the universe and everything in it
  2. What are astronomers?
    These are the scientists who study the universe and everything in it
  3. What are the two views about the universe?
    1. Ptolemy's geocentric model believes that the Earth is at the centre of the universe

    2. Copernicus's heliocentric model believes that the Sun is at the centre of the universe
  4. What is the universe?
    This is made up of everything that exists including planets, stars, galaxies and all forms of matter and energy
  5. What is the Big Bang Theory?
    This is an idea that scientists use to explain how our universe was formed
  6. What is a galaxy?
    A galaxy is a large group of stars, dust, gas and dark matter held together by gravity
  7. State the galaxy that Planet Earth is in
    The Milky Way
  8. What is antimatter?
    This is the mirror image of matter
  9. Explain Hubble's Law
    This states that galaxies are moving away from each other

    The further away a galaxy is the faster the galaxy is moving away from us
  10. What is a celestial body?
    This is any natural body outside of the Earth's atmosphere

    Planets, stars, moons, comets and asteroids are examples of celestial bodies
  11. List examples of celestial bodies
    1. Planets

    2. Stars

    3. Moons

    4. Comets

    5. Asteroids
  12. What is a planet?
    A planet is an object that:

    1. is in orbit around a star

    2. has enough mass to have a nearly round shape

    3. has enough gravity to clear the space waste in its orbit
  13. What is a moon?
    This is a natural body which orbits a planet
  14. What is a star?
    A star is a luminous object made up of gas that can produce its own light and heat by nuclear reactions
  15. State an example of a star
    The Sun
  16. What colour is the hottest star?
  17. What colour is the coolest star?
  18. Describe the life cycle of a star
    1. In a nebula the dust and gas from space are pulled together by gravity.  The friction causes heat and the nuclei of hydrogen to join together. A star is now formed

    2. The star remains stable for millions of years.  When the star runs out of hydrogen fuel, fussion slows down

    3. The temperature decreases and the star expands to form a red giant

    4. Eventually the inner core of the star collapses under gravity to form a very hot and dense white dwarf

    5. The white dwarf fades out as fusion reactions stop.  The star goes cold and becomes a black dwarf
  19. What is a light year?
    This is the distance that light travels in one year
  20. What causes the twinkle in the stars?
    Turbulence in the Earth's armosphere
  21. What are asteroids?
    These are lumps of rock that orbit the Sun

    They are too small to be classified as planets

    They have no air and no atmosphere
  22. State where the asteroid belt is located?
    It lies between Mars and Jupiter
  23. Describe the three types of asteroids
    1. C-type asteroids are made up of carbon compounds

    2. S-type asteroids are made up of stony materials

    3. M-type asteroids are mostly made of metals, such as iron
  24. What are meteors?
    Meteors are asteroids that are about 10 metres wide

    These are rocks that burn up in the Earth's atmosphere, leaving shooting star trails behind them
  25. What are planetoids?
    These are asteroids that are about 100 kilometres wide

    It is called a 'dwarf' planet because they are too large to be asteroids and too small to be called planets
  26. What is a comet?
    This is a small lump of ice and dirt that orbits the Sun
  27. Where are comets found?
    They are found in the Kuiper Belt or the Ooort Cloud
  28. Where is the Kuiper Belt located?
    It is found beyond Neptune
  29. Where is the Oort Cloud located?
    It is found at the edge of our solar system
  30. Describe Halley's Comet?
    This is the most well-known comet in the solar system

    It orbits the Sun and can be seen with the naked eye from Earth approximately every 75 years

    It is due to return again in 2061
  31. How many planets is there in our solar system?
    8 planets - 4 inner planets and 4 outer planets
  32. What are the four inner planets called?
    Terrestrial planets because they are made up of rock
  33. List the four inner (terrestrial) planets?
    1. Mercury

    2. Venus

    3. Earth

    4. Mars
  34. What are the four outer planets called?
    Gas giants because they are mainly made of gases hydrogen and helium

    They are very large and have rings around them
  35. List the four outer planets (gas giants)?
    1. Jupiter

    2. Saturn

    3. Uranus

    4. Neptune
  36. Define gravity
    This is the non contact force of attraction between objects
  37. Define force field
    This is a region in space where an object feels a force
  38. Define gravitational force field
    This is a region in space where an object that has mass feels the force of gravity
Card Set:
Science - Space
2017-01-04 00:27:04

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