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2010-09-04 12:58:25

Study Guide for Biology Chapter 1
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  1. Living organisms are: (7 things)
    • – composed of cells
    • – complex and ordered
    • – Sensitivity - respond to their environment
    • – can grow and reproduce
    • – obtain and use energy
    • – Homeostasis - maintain internal balance
    • – allow for evolutionary adaptation
  2. Cell
    The basic unit of life.
  3. Levels of Organization:
    Cellular Organization
    Atoms > Molecules > Organelles > Cells
  4. Levels of Organization:
    Organismal Level
    Tissues > Organs > Organ Systems > Organisms
  5. Levels of Organization:
    Population Level
    Population > Species > Community > Ecosystem
  6. Emergent properties
    New properties present at one level that are not seen in the previous level
  7. Deductive Reasoning
    Uses general principles to make specific predictions.
  8. Inductive Reasoning
    Uses specific observations to develop general conclusions.
  9. Hypothesis
    A possible explanation for an observation.
  10. The Experiment
    • -tests the hypothesis
    • -must be carefully designed to test only one variable at a time
    • -consists of a test experiment and a control experiment
  11. Reductionism
    To break a complex process down to its simpler parts.
  12. Models
    To simulate phenomena that are difficult to study directly.
  13. Scientific Theory
    • is a proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon.
    • it is also the body of interconnected concepts, supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence. Expresses ideas of which we are most certain.
    • Scientific theory = solid ground of science.
  14. Basic Research
    Used to extend the boundaries of current knowledge, and provides the scientific foundation used in applied research.
  15. Charles Darwin
    • Served as a naturalist on a mapping expedition around coastal South America (Galapagos Islands)
    • Traveled on the H.M.S. Beagle
    • Used many observations to develop his ideas Proposed that evolution occurs by natural selection.
  16. Evolution
    Modification of a species over generations -“descent with modification”
  17. Natural Selection
    Individuals with superior physical or behavioral characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without such characteristics.
  18. Evolution by Natural Selection:
    Organisms produce more offspring than could survive.
  19. Evolution by Natural Selection:
    An inherited variation that increases an organism’s chance of survival in a particular environment.
  20. Evolution by Natural Selection:
    “Survival of the fittest”
    Those most “fit” for an environment survive.
  21. Evolution by Natural Selection:
    Those organisms that survive in an environment reproduce and have offspring which may have the characteristics that allowed their parents to survive.
  22. Evolution by Natural Selection
    Speciation“origin of species”
    A group of organisms can only reproduce successfully among its members.
  23. Homologous structures
    • Have same evolutionary origin, but different structure and function.
    • Example: Mamal Arms
  24. Analogous structures
    • Have similar structure and function, but different evolutionary origin.
    • Example: Fly Wings
  25. Vestigial Structures
    Structures that are no longer functional.
  26. Phylogenetic Trees
    Branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species.
  27. Cell theory
    All living organisms are made of cells, and all living cells come from preexisting cells.
  28. Molecular basis of inheritance
    • DNA encodes genes which control living organisms and are passed from one generation to the next.
    • Example: 23 chromosomes passed from each parent into their children.
  29. Structure and Function
    The proper function of a molecule is dependent on its structure. The structure of a molecule can often tell us about its function.
  30. Evolutionary change
    Living organisms have evolved from the same origin event. The diversity of life is the result of evolutionary change.
  31. Evolutionary conservation
    Critical characteristics of early organisms are preserved and passed on to future generations.
  32. Cells - information processing systems
    Cells process information stored in DNA as well as information received from the environment.