BB01 - Immune System Genetics Blood Bank Methods

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  1. (T/F) The additive polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been proven to be more effective than LISS or albumin in detecting weak antibodies
    True
  2. Which of the following is the most likely cause of a false negative antigen-antibody reaction?

    A) pH of 7.2
    B) Excess antigen or antibody level
    C) Incubation at 37C with LISS for 15 minutes
    D) When a refrigerated, clotted blood specimen is used for DAT testing
    B) Excess antigen or antibody level
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A principle of the antiglobulin test is:

    A) Both IgG and C3d are required for RBC sensitization
    B) Human globulin is eluted from RBCs during saline washings
    C) Injections of human globulin into animals precipitates passive immunity
    D) AHG reacts with human globulins bound to RBCs
    D) AHG reacts with human globulins bound to RBCs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Hemolysis is not seen in blood bank testing performed on EDTA plasma because:

    A) Binding of Ca++ inactivates serine proteases
    B) Binding of Ca++ prevents antibody binding to the surface of the RBC
    C) Binding Ca++ prevents clotting
    D) Binding Ca++ prevents the activation of complement
    D) Binding Ca++ prevents the activation of complement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. IgG antibodies bound to RBCs can cause agglutination when:

    A) They are at room temperature and below
    B) Complement is present
    C) Anti-human IgG is present to cross-link their Fc portion
    D) They are incubated in the presence of LISS
    C) Anti-human IgG is present to cross-link their Fc portion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Intravascular hemolysis of the red cell occurs when which component of complement is attached?

    A) C4-C2
    B) C1
    C) C3
    D) C9
    D) C9
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which would probably have more epitopes?

    A) Haptens
    B) N/A
    C) Immunogens
    D) N/A
    C) Immunogens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. What kind of bond is most responsible for holding the Ig heavy chain and light chain together?

    A) electrostatic
    B) Van der Waals
    C) covalent disulfide
    D) hydrogen
    C) covalent disulfide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. (T/F) False-positive DAT results are associated with clotted specimens where complement has coated the red
    • cells in vitro.
    • True
  10. Which of the following antibody screening systems does NOT require that the screening cells be washed after incubation with patient's plasma?

    A) All systems require a washing step
    B) Gel system
    C) Solid phase
    D) The tube method
    B) Gel system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Check cells used to confirm negative antiglobulin test results in antibody screening are:

    A) Complement coated RBCs
    B) IgG coated RBCs
    C) AHG coated RBCs
    D) RBCs coated with both IgG and complement
    B) IgG coated RBCs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which is the correct interpretation of a negative test reaction after the addition of check cells to an antiglobulin test?

    A) Antibody screen is negative
    B) Antibody screen should be repeated
    C) The saline washes were adequate
    D) Antibody screen is positive
    B) Antibody screen should be repeated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. (T/F) Clinical conditions which can manifest a positive Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) include hemolytic
    • transfusion reactions, HDFN and autoimmune hemolytic anemias.
    • True
  14. Linkage disequilibrium occurs when:

    A) Crossing over removes the linkage between two genes
    B) Two genes in a haplotype are found together more times than would be predicted by
    chance alone.
    C) Gene products are not linked because of charge incompatibility
    D) Gene products are found to cross react with a common antibody
    • B) Two genes in a haplotype are found together more times than would be predicted by
    • chance alone.
  15. In what type of cell division does chromosomal cross-over (ie recombination) occur?

    A) Meiosis
    B) Interphase
    C) Mitosis
    D) Anaphase
    A) Meiosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. A locus is:

    A) A region of the genome that contains non-coding sequences for the gene
    B) A location on the chromosome where a gene is found
    C) A group of alleles
    D) A type of grasshopper.
    B) A location on the chromosome where a gene is found
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. What is an amorph? Name a blood group as an example.
    • An amorphous gene has no detectable trait an example would be a null type blood group
    • Good. Examples we have seen so far include the O gene, h gene, and d gene.
  18. When a recessive trait is expressed, it means that:

    A) Two genes carrying the trait were present
    B) An amorph was present
    C) One gene carrying the trait was present
    D) The trait is difficult to observe
    A) Two genes carrying the trait were present
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which phenotype could NOT result from the mating of a Jk(a+b+) parent and a Jk(a+b+) parent:

    A) Jka-b-
    B) Jka-b+
    C) Jka+b+
    D) Jka+b-
    A) Jka-b-
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The indirect antiglobulin test for antibody screening should routinely include:

    A) 2 or 3 screening cells
    B) 37C incubation
    C) addition of enhancement media
    D) use of anti-human globulin (AHG)
    E) all of the above
    E) all of the above
  21. What part of the immunoglobulin molecule binds complement?

    A) The variable region
    B) The light chain
    C) The heavy chain
    D) The Fab region
    C) The heavy chain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Anti-human globulin should be added immediately after the last wash because:

    A) Cold reacting antibodies will not have time to bind and react with the AHG
    B) It increases the avidity of the AHG for IgG
    C) Non-specific reactions will be minimized
    D) It minimizes disassociation of antibody bound to the RBC
    D) It minimizes disassociation of antibody bound to the RBC
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which cells are responsible for killing cancer cells?

    A) Mast cells
    B) Natural Killer cells
    C) Basophils
    D) Macrophages
    B) Natural Killer cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which of the following steps is not included in the direct antiglobulin test (DAT)?

    A) Wash cells 3 times
    B) Use check cell control
    C) Incubation at 37C
    D) Shake tubes to check for agglutination
    C) Incubation at 37C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The zeta potential is the:

    A) the electrical potential across the red cell membrane
    B) potential energy created between negatively charged RBCs and clouds of positive ions
    surrounding them
    C) force that attracts antibody to the surface of the rbc
    D) force that helps create faster binding of antibody to cell surface proteins
    • B) potential energy created between negatively charged RBCs and clouds of positive ions
    • surrounding them
  26. Why is antihuman globulin used in agglutination reactions involving red cell bound IgG?

    A) It binds directly to the RBC cell surface, allowing agglutination
    B) It crosslinks the Fc region of the IgG, allowing agglutination
    C) It causes complement to crossreact with the immunoglobulin and cause hemolysis,
    D) It crosslinks the Fab fragments of the IgG, allowing agglutination
    B) It crosslinks the Fc region of the IgG, allowing agglutination
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which immunoglobulins can best activate the classic pathway of the complement system?

    A) N/A
    B) All subgroups of IgG and IgM
    C) IgM, IgG1, and IgG3
    D) IgE and IgM
    C) IgM, IgG1, and IgG3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. What is the main advantage of LISS (low ionic strength solution) in the indirect antiglobulin test?

    A) Helps stabilize pH of the reaction medium
    B) Increases speed of antibody sensitization
    C) N/A
    D) Enhances certain blood group antigen-antibody reactions but destroys others
    B) Increases speed of antibody sensitization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Describe the structure of the antibody molecule. Include the purpose of the hinge region and the locationof the binding sites for antigen, complement, and the macrophage Fc receptor.
    • the hinge region provides molecular flex and also containsdisulfide bonds. Fab regions bind antigens while Fc regio s bind complement and other cell receptors. TheFc region is the same for a class of immunoglobulins ex IgG or IgM there are 5 classes. GMADEReAntibodies are composed of glycoproteins. They consist of two heavy chains and two light chains heldtogether by disulfide bonds. They have both constant and variable regions called the Tc and Fab
    • Good. Fc region binds with macrophage receptor.
  30. Discuss how complement becomes activated in the Classic Pathway and in the Alternative Pathway.What is the role of activated complement in both Intravascular and Extravascular RBC destruction aftertransfusion. Include in your answer how complement activation causes ill effects during an IntravascularTransfusion Reaction.
    • Classical complement is activated by antibodies with close Tc portions. This leads to the cascade whereC1q binds Tc on Ab and cleavage of complement proteins leads to C5 convertase formation whichrecruits proteins that form a pore causing cell lysis. The alternative pathway is activated by bacteria cellsurface antigens or artificial devices like dialysis. This also leads to pore formation but starts with C3 andforms a different C5 convertase but results in thesame lysis. Is RBCs ag become bound by complementintravascular hemolysis may occur as with HDN. Also complement anaphylatoxins generated in thecascade can cause intravascular hemolysis and the release of histamine
    • Mention too the role of complement wrt extravascular hemolysis C3-coated RBCs can berecognized as an opsonin by macrophages, -enhancing the clearance of IgG and C3-coatedRBCs in the liver and spleen via phagocytosis (HDN is extravascular red cells destruction). Statethat vasoactive and inflammatory mediators (including C3a and C5a components ofcomplement) released into plasma when complement is activated in an Intravascular HTR cantrigger the body's coagulation cascade leading to DIC, organ failure and death.
  31. After incubation of an antibody screen, RBCs must be washed in saline at least 3 times before theaddition of antihuman globulin to:

    A) Wash antibody off the cells
    B) Neutralize excess AHG reagent
    C) Wash away hemolyzed cells
    D) Remove traces of free serum globulins
    D) Remove traces of free serum globulins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. When a man expresses a phenotypic trait is expressed in all of his daughters and in none of his sons, the
    trait is likely to be:

    A) X-linked dominant
    B) Autosomal dominant
    C) X-linked recessive
    D) Autosomal recessive
    A) X-linked dominant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The most sensitive test used today for paternity testing is:

    A) HLA System.
    B) DNA analysis methods.
    C) Blood group systems with the greatest number of alleles at a given locus.
    D) Blood groups with null alleles.
    B) DNA analysis methods.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Name two important functions that B cells provide in the immume response.
    Activated b cells become plasma cells that produce antigen specific antibodies that neutralize and bindpathogens for removal. B cells also become memory cells persisting for many years providing life loneimmunity
  35. Which of the following immunoglobulins is produced in the secondary immune response?

    A) IgM
    B) IgA
    C) IgE
    D) IgG
    D) IgG
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following immunoglobulins is most efficient at binding complement?

    A) IgA
    B) IgE
    C) IgM
    D) IgM
    D) IgM
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The preseroconversion window in blood donation screening for detection of transfusion transmitted
    diseases refers to:

    A) The time when donors can be infected but do not yet test positive by serologic methods
    B) Refers mainly to viral pathogens
    C) All of the above
    D) May be narrowed by using molecular methods
    C) All of the above
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Paternity case: Alleged father's ABO type is group O. Mother's ABO type is group A. The baby's ABO
    type is group B. Barring rare exception, this is an example of:

    A) Indirect exclusion of paternity
    B) N/A
    C) No apparent exclusion of paternity
    D) Direct exclusion of paternity
    D) Direct exclusion of paternity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Indicate which activities use the following methods: indirect antiglobulin test

    A) Testing for maternal antibody on cord RBCs
    B) ABO Typing
    C) IgG antibody testing in patient's plasma
    D) Detection of IgM antibodies
    C) IgG antibody testing in patient's plasma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Indicate which activities use the following methods: direct antiglobulin test

    A) IgG antibody testing in patient's plasma
    B) ABO Typing
    C) Detection of IgM antibodies
    D) Testing for maternal antibody
    on cord RBCs
    • D) Testing for maternal antibody
    • on cord RBCs

Card Set Information

Author:
victimsofadown
ID:
327211
Filename:
BB01 - Immune System Genetics Blood Bank Methods
Updated:
2017-01-07 04:16:12
Tags:
BB01 Immune System Genetics Blood Bank Methods
Folders:
TESTS,BB
Description:
BB01 - Immune System, Genetics, Blood Bank Methods
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