CHEM 03 - Electrolytes - acid/base - kidney function

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  1. Hypernatremia would most likely result from which of the following conditions?

    A) diabetes insipidus
    B) hemolysis
    C) forced water intake
    D) hypoaldosteronism
    A) daibetes insipidus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Given the following results, calculate the anion gap for this patient:
    Na: 140 mmol/L
    K: 3.8 mmol/L
    Cl: 105 mmol/L
    Bicarbonate: 25 mmol/L
    BUN: 14 mg/dL
    Glucose: 90 mg/dL

    A) 10
    B) cannot be determined without additional information
    C) 15
    D) 35
    E) 6
    A) 10
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following ingestions (in excess) is LEAST likely to cause an increase in the osmolal gap?

    A) methanol
    B) ethylene glycol
    C) salicylates
    D) ethanol
    C) salicylates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which laboratory test is the primary indicator of the metabolic component of acid base status?

    A) pH
    B) total CO2
    C) pCO2
    D) pO2
    B) total CO2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which blood gases parameter is most affected by the rate of respiration?

    A) arterial pCO2
    B) arterial pO2
    C) metHgb
    D) hemoglobin saturation (sO2)
    A) arterial pCO2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. With which of these functions is potassium most strongly associated?

    A) ADH secretion
    B) glomerular filtration
    C) renin secretion
    D) myocardial contraction and rhythm
    D) myocardial contraction and rhythm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The renal hormone which responds to a decrease in blood volume is

    A) aldosterone
    B) anti-diuretic hormone (ADH, AVP)
    C) the kidney is not an endocrine organ
    D) renin
    E) angiotensin II
    D) renin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which electrolyte is an essential cofactor to over 300 enzymes and is primarily regulated by the kidney?

    A) magnesium
    B) calcium
    C) sodium
    D) potassium
    A) magnesium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Hyperventilation would most likely result in what type of acid base disturbance?
    •  
    • a) respiratory alkalosis
    • b) respiratory acidosis
    • c) metabolic acidosis
    • d) metabolic alkalosis
    • a) respiratory alkalosis
  10. (T/F) Arterial specimens for blood gas analysis should be transported immediately to the laboratory at room temperature and analyzed within 30 minutes from collection.
    True
  11. An elevated lactate is primarily used to indicate

    A) decreased GFR
    B) increased anaerobic metabolism
    C) increased aerobic metabolism
    D) decreased renal tubular secretion
    B) increased anaerobic metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The best single test for assessing glomerular function is

    A) creatinine
    B) BUN
    C) uric acid
    D) serum albumin
    A) creatinine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which of the following serum constituents is not substantially found in the glomerular filtrate?

    A) amino acids
    B) urea
    C) albumin
    D) glucose
    C) albumin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. (T/F) Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by severe hyperproteinemia and hypoproteinuria.
    False
  15. (T/F) The kidneys routinely reabsorb 100% of the glucose and 95% of the albumin that are filtered from the plasma.
    True
  16. The Jaffe reaction is the basis of photometric methods commonly used to measure

    A) lactate
    B) uric acid
    C) urea
    D) creatinine
    D) creatinine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Recurrent arthritis caused by urate deposition in joint tissue and synovial fluid is called

    A) gout
    B) rheumatoid arthritis
    C) uremia
    D) hyperuricemia
    A) gout
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Chronic kidney disease is commonly accompanied by anemia because of

    A) loss of rbcs in the glomerular filtrate
    B) loss of iron in the glomerular filtrate
    C) decreased production of erythropoietin by the kidney
    D) marrow suppression by uremic compounds
    C) decreased production of erythropoietin by the kidney
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. When arterial blood from a patient not receiving oxygen is exposed to air (as in air bubbles in a collection syringe), which one of the following sets of changes is most likely to occur?

    A) pO2 decreased, pCO2 decreased, pH decreased
    B) pO2 increased, pCO2 decreased, pH increased
    C) pO2 increased, pCO2 decreased, pH decreased
    D) pO2 decreased, pCO2 increased, pH decreased
    B) pO2 increased, pCO2 decreased, pH increased
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The anticoagulant that is considered best for anaerobic collection of an arterial or venous whole blood specimen for blood gas analysis is:

    A) EDTA
    B) heparin
    C) Any are acceptable
    D) Citrate
    E) No anticoagulant is needed
    B) heparin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which one of the following is a cause of decreased fractional oxyhemoglobin (FO2Hb)?

    A) Decreased pCO2
    B) Respiratory acidosis
    C) Elevated red blood cell count (RBC)
    D) Carbon monoxide poisoning
    D) Carbon monoxide poisoning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. An increase in blood pH with a concomitant decrease in pCO2 and a decreased body temperature and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate will cause the oxygen dissociation curve to:

    A) Shift to the right
    B) Remain unchanged
    C) Shift to the left
    C) Shift to the left
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. In the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, the term “pKa” is the:

    A) coefficient for oxygen in blood.
    B) negative log of hydrogen ion activity.
    C) coefficient for CO2 in blood.
    D) negative log of the dissociation constant for carbonic acid.
    D) negative log of the dissociation constant for carbonic acid.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The high concentration of which cation contributes most to the osmolality of extracellular fluid?

    A) Mg
    B) K
    C) Na
    D) Ca
    C) Na
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A uncentrifuged blood sample for serum basic metabolic panel (BMP) was refrigerated overnight since it missed the lab pickup time. Which analyte would most likely be affected in a clinically significant amount?

    A) Glucose
    B) Ca
    C) Na
    D) None should be significantly affected
    E) K
    E) K
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, AVP, arginine vasopressin) is a hormone secreted by the

    A) kidney
    B) baroreceptors
    C) posterior pituitary
    D) adrenal cortex
    C) posterior pituitary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Calcium in plasma exists in which of the following relative proportions?

    A) 25% free, 65% protein bound, 10% small anion bound
    B) 50% free, 25% protein bound, 25% small anion bound
    C) 45% free, 45% protein bound, 10% small anion bound
    D) 10% free, 45% protein bound, 45% small anion bound
    C) 50% free, 25% protein bound, 25% small anion bound
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Match the following hormones with their principle actions:

    +Antidiuretichormone (ADH, AVP)
    +Erythropoietin
    +Aldosterone
    +Renin

    -stimulates production ofaldosterone
    -inhibits water reabsorption in the kidney
    -inhibits sodium reabsorption in the kidney
    -promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidney
    -promotes water reabsorption inthe kidney
    -stimulates red blood cell production
    • ADH: promotes water reabsorption in the kidney
    • Erythropoietin: stimulates red blood cell production
    • Aldosterone: promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidney
    • Renin: inhibits sodium reabsorption in the kidney
  29. Given the following data, calculate the creatinine clearance:
    Urine creatinine 50 mg/dL
    Serum creatinine 2.5 mg/dL
    Urine volume = 2.16L
    Collection time = 24 hours

    A) 20mL/min
    B) 132 mL/min
    C) 30mL/min
    D) 44mL/min
    C) 30mL/min
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. For each physiological situation, select the most likely acid base disturbance.

    +Uncontrolled diabetes
    +Extreme anxiety
    +Severe vomiting
    +Chronic kidney disease

    -Metabolic acidosis
    -Metabolic alkalosis
    -Respiratory alkalosis
    -Respiratory acidosis
    • Uncontrolled diabetes: Metabolic acidosis
    • Extreme anxiety: Respiratory alkalosis
    • Severe vomiting: Metabolic alkalosis
    • Chronic kidney disease: Metabolic acidosis
  31. An increased anion gap could be caused by any of the following EXCEPT:

    A) Uremia
    B) Diabetic ketoacidosis
    C) Ethylene glycol ingestion
    D) Diabetes insipidus
    D) Diabetes insipidus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following clinical situations would LEAST likely result in a prerenal azotemia?

    A) Kidney stone
    B) Acute severe blood loss
    C) Congestive heart failure (CHF)
    D) Ruptured aorta
    A) Kidney stone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The most important buffer system in maintaining acidbasebalance is

    A) albumin and other proteins
    B) phosphate
    C) bicarbonate:carbonic acid
    D) hemoglobin
    C) bicarbonate:carbonic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Substances that increase results for creatinine in the Jaffe reaction include all of the following EXCEPT:

    A) Acetoacetate
    B) Cephalosporins
    C) Picric acid
    D) Glucose
    C) Picric acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Pseudohyponatremia may result from:

    A) Hyperlipidemia
    B) Hemolysis
    C) Leukemia
    D) Platelet excess
    A) Hyperlipidemia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Osteomalacia is a potential consequence of chronic kidney disease. This process primarily results from:

    A) decreased activation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by erythrpoietin
    B) dissolution of bone calcium complexes by urea
    C) decreased vitamin D activation
    d) none of the above
    C) decreased vitamin D activation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Respiratory acidosis would most likely arise from which of the following scenarios?

    A) High altitude physical activity
    B) Ethylene glycol ingestion
    C) Heroin overdose
    D) Acute blood loss
    C) Heroin overdose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The carbonic acid (H2CO3) content of a blood sample can best be estimated as

    A) pH 6.1
    B) pCO2 x 0.03
    C) HCO3 ÷ 20
    d) None of the above
    B) pCO2 x 0.03
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. A serum sample that is left uncapped for an hour before analysis will most likely give an ionized (free) calcium result that is {select answer} unless a correction formula is applied.

    A) falsely decreased due to continued metabolism
    B) falsely increased due to continued metabolism
    C) falsely decreased due to loss of CO2
    D) falsely increased due to loss of CO2
    C) falsely decreased due to loss of CO2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The creatinine clearance is performed to estimate:

    A) glomerular filtration
    B) tubular secretion
    C) tubular reabsorption
    D) urine concentrating capability
    A) glomerular filtration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. That ratio of HCO3- to H2CO3 in normal blood is approximately

    A) 10:1
    B) 20:1
    C) 1:20
    D) 1:10
    B) 20:1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. The most common constituent of kidney stones is :

    A) Ca
    B) uric acid
    C) Mg
    D) creatinine
    A) Ca
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Compensation in a state of respiratory acidosis would most likely be accomplished by

    A) decreasing the respiratory rate
    B) decreasing acid secretion by the kidney
    C) increasing the respiratory rate
    D) increasing acid secretion by the kidney
    D) increasing acid secretion by the kidney
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

Card Set Information

Author:
victimsofadown
ID:
327317
Filename:
CHEM 03 - Electrolytes - acid/base - kidney function
Updated:
2017-01-11 01:31:36
Tags:
CHEM 03 Electrolytes acid base kidney function
Folders:
TESTS,CHEM
Description:
CHEM 03 - Electrolytes - acid/base - kidney function
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