C2201

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  1. • (PSTD) Propeller Sleeve Touchdown
    • o Loss of oil pressure to the propeller pitch control mechanism from a momentary contact between the oil transfer sleeve and the propeller shaft
    • o During a prop-sleeve touchdown, the propeller moves toward feather due to a temporary loss of oil pressure to the propeller pitch control mechanism
    • o Malfunction manifests itself with fluctuations in Np, torque increasing, thrust decreasing, and engine vibrations.
    • o Fluctuations maybe erratic but should be temporary (usually less than 20 seconds) and may be accompanied by a chip detector warning
    • o If propeller RPM is lower than normal, thrust produced will be lower than normal for the torque displayed.
    • o If rate of change of the propeller RPM, due to a rapid feathering of the propeller, exceeds the PMU sensor validity check limit, the PMU will assume a sensor failure has occurred. PMU switch will switch to manual mode and a red X will be displayed for the RPM and towque values. Turning PMU to NORM then OFF should restore display.
    • o If red X are result of a faulty sensor and not a rate exceedance, cycling PMU will not restore display.
    • o PMU normally controls the propeller through the PIU, which modulates oil flow and pressure to the propeller pitch control mechanism through the oil transfer sleeve. With PMU off, oil pressure and volume output to the propeller pitch control are increased. This additional capacity may be sufficient to overcome a localized reduction in oil pressure caused by prop sleeve touchdown and to restore propeller control.
  2. • Engine failure immediately after takeoff
    • o Nose pitch down change is necessary to maintain airspeed
    • o If sufficient runway remains, best option is to continue straight ahead and land
    • o If insufficient runway remains for safe landing, careful consideration of recovery must be made.
    • o Early decision to eject may be the best option
    • o Anticipated increased brake sensitivity when braking above 80 KIAS.
    • o Control aircraft energy through altitude, airspeed, and configuration
  3. • Engine failure immediately after takeoff - Indications
     Total loss of pwer and a fairly rapid reduction in airspeed
  4. • Engine failure immediately after takeoff - Critical Action Items
    • • NOTE:
    • o If insufficient runway remains to land straight ahead, consider immediate ejection
    • o Do not sacrifice aircraft control while troubleshooting or lowering gear with emergency system
    •  Airspeed – 110 knots minimum
    •  PCL – as required
    • • NOTE:
    • o The pilot should select IDLE to use the increased drag of the not yet feathered propeller or select OFF to reduce the sink rate
    •  Emergency gear landing handle – pull as required
    • • NOTE:
    • o With a loss of hydraulic pressure, landing gear and flaps can not be lowered by normal means
    •  Flaps – as required
  5. • Engine Failure during flight - Indications
    •  Initial
    • • Loss of power and airspeed
    • • Rapid decay in N1, torque, and ITT
    • o N1 indicate 0% within ~ 5 seconds even tho the gas generator may not have seized (does not indicate speeds below 8%)
    • o Torque will indicate 0%
    • • Propeller movement towards feather due to loss of oil pressure
    • o Propeller windmilling as it moves toward feathered at a reduced RPM
    •  Secondary
    • • Rapidly decreasing ITT
    • • Lower than normal oil pressure
    •  EICAS
    • • GEN, FUEL PX, OIL PX warning followed by OBOGS FAIL warning
    • • PMU FAIL and CKPT PX warning may illuminate
  6. • Engine Failure during flight - general
    • o Sufficient hydraulic pressure may not be available for gear and flaps as engine spools down.
    •  Gear and flaps will remain in last selected position at time of engine failure. Gear may indicate unsafe or in transit if operation is attempted at time of engine failure
    • o Initial reaction to any malfunction at low altitude is to trade airspeed for altitude
    •  Higher altitude means additional terrain clearance for ejection or additional glide distance
    • o Zoom to eject if no suitable landing options available and restart is not warranted.
    •  If decision to eject is not immediately obvious, zoom to climb procedure (2G pull up 20° and push over at 145 KIAS for 0.5G to 125 KIAS)
    • o Zoom/glide
    •  Above 150 KIAS, 2G pull up 20° and push over at 145 KIAS for 0 to +0.5G to 125 KIAS
    • • Zoom capabilities at 200 KIAS – 603 to 915 gained
    • • Zoom capabilities at 250 KIAS – 1180 to 1576 gained
    • • NOTE
    • o Zoom results with an engine still producing usable torque (>6%) will be several hundred to several thousand feet higher gained
    •  Below 15 KIAS, benefits of zoom climb are negligible. Perform a constant altitude deceleration to desired glide airspeed (125 KIAS).
    • o Decision to land
    •  Intercept ELP at high key if possible or at whichever point is attainable.
    •  Glide performance will be considerably reduced until prop is feathered
  7. • Engine Failure during flight - Critical Action Items
    •  Zoom/Glide – 125 KIAS minimum
    • • NOTE
    • o Crosscheck N1 against other engine indications to assess condition of engine and determine if airstart is warranted. At 125 KIAS, engine that has flamed out will rotate below 8% N1 and indicated 0%N1. Oil pressure may display oil pressure up to 4 psi with an N1 of 0%.
    • o If experiencing uncommanded power change/loss or unccommanded prop feather or compressor stalls, refer to appropriate procedure
    •  PCL – off
    • • NOTE
    • o PCL will not feather unless the PCL is full in OFF
    •  Intercept ELP
    • • WARNING
    • o If a suitable landing surface is available, turn immediately to intercept ELP.
    • o Do not delay decision to eject below 2000 feet AGL
    •  Airstart – attempt if warranted
    • • WARNING
    • o Not recommended below 2000 ft AGL. Primary attention on ejection or safe recovery of aircraft
    •  IF CONDITIONS DO NOT WARRANT AN AIRSTAT
    •  FIREWALL SHUTOFF HANDLE – PULL
    •  EXECUTE FORCED LANDING OR EJECT
  8. • Airstarts (PMU Norm, PMU Off, Immediate) - General
    •  Status of the PMU dictates the type of airstart attempted.
    •  All airstarts are started assisted
    •  Used if engine failure was not due to fire or mechanical failure
    •  Airstart should be attempted immediately
    •  PCL is critical to feather prop to reduce drag and increase glide distance
    •  If successful, useful power will be available after 40 seconds from starter engagement
    •  Approximately 1200 feet will be lost during airstart attempted at best glide speed of 125.
    • • Airstart envelope
    • o 125-200 KIAS for SL - 15,000
    • o 135-200 KIAS for 15,001 -20,000
  9. • Airstarts Immediate - Critical Action Items
    •  PCL – OFF
    • • WARNING
    • o Do not delay ejection while attempting airstart at low altitude if below 2000 feet AGL
    • o PCL must be in OFF to feather the prop and ensure proper starter, ignition, boost pump, and PMU operation during start
    • • CAUTION
    • o Ensure PCL is in OFF or fuel may be prematurely introduced during start
    •  STARTER SWITCH – ATUO/RESET
    •  PCL – IDLE, Above 13% N1
    • • Monitor ITT, N1, Fuel Flow, and other engine indications.
    • • Typically in excess of 1200 feet will be loss for each attempt.
    • • The propeller will unfeather and accelerate to operating RPM approximately 20 seconds after N1 reaches 45%.
    • • Useful power will be available after 40 seconds from starter engagement
    • • WARNING
    • o Movement of PCL above IDLE before N1 stabilizes at ~ 67% will cause an increase in fuel flow which may cause engine failure due to severe ITT overtempt
    • • CAUTION
    • o If N1 does not rise within 5 seconds, discontinue the airstart attempt and proceed to IT AIRSTART IS UNSUCCESSFUL
    •  Engine Instruments – Monitor ITT, N1, and oil pressure
    •  IF AIRSTART IS UNSUCCESSFUL
    •  PCL – OFF
    • • CAUTION
    • o If there is no rise in ITT within 10 seconds after fuel flow indications, place PCL in OFF and abort start
    •  FIREWALL SHUTOFF HANDLE – Pull
    •  Execute forced landing or eject
    •  IF AIRSTART IS SUCCESSFUL
    •  PCL – As required after N1 reaches IDLE RPM (approx. 67% N1)
    •  PEL – execute
    •  Then use Checklist for the rest of the steps once power is restored
  10. • Uncommanded Propeller Feather - general
    • o Loss of thrust caused by uncommanded prop feathering may be the result of an errant electrical signal to the feather dump solenoid causing reduction in oil pressure to the propeller pitch control mechanism
    • o In case of an errant electrical signal, opening the PROP SYS circuit breaker will remove power from the feather dump solenoid and allow oil pressure to return, brining it out of a fully feathered state in 15-20 seconds.
  11. • Uncommanded Propeller Feather - Indications
    •  Rapid reduction in NP ↓
    •  Torque ↑ (often above limit)
    •  Increased prop noise
    •  Noticeable loss of thrust
    •  Possibly engine/airframe vibrations
    •  If the PMU drops offline, PMU FAIL warning
    • • If the PMU stays online, it will continue to provide protection against overtorque
  12. • Uncommanded Propeller Feather - Critical Action Items
    •  PCL – Midrange
    • • NOTE
    • o Midrange is a physical PCL angle that approximates midway position between IDLE and MAX
    • o A PCL position above IDLE will provide the best chance for the engine to recover
    • o A midrange PCL position will minimize the potential of engine overtorque and/or overtempt when PMU is OFF.
    •  PMU Switch – OFF
    • • CAUTION
    • o There is a potential for ITT limits to be exceeded if the PMU switch is turned OFF with ITT >=820°C
    • o Ground idle will not be available during landing rollout and taxi. Plan for increased landing distances due to higher IDLE N1 (~67%)
    •  PROP SYS Circuit Breaker (left front console) – Pull, if NP stable below 40%
    • • NOTE
    • o With constant airspeed and torque, RPM can be considered stable is below 40% and no upward change for 3 second period
    • o If Np indicator displays red X’s, switching the PMU to NORM and back OFF will reset the PMU and should restore the Np indication)
    • o Propeller should come out of feather within 15-20 seconds
    •  PCL – as required
    • • WARNING
    • o If rate of descent (on VSI at 125 KIAS, Gear, Flaps, Speed brake up, and 4-6% torque is greater than 1500 fpm, increase torque as necessary (up to 131%) to achieve 1350 – 1500 fpm. If engine power is insufficient to achieve 1350 – 1500, move PCL to OFF.
    • • NOTE
    • o Consider moving PCL through full range of motion to determine power available
    •  IF POWER IS SUFFICIENT FOR CONTINUED FLIGHT
    •  PEL – execute
    •  IF POWER IS INSUFFICIENT TO COMPLETE PEL
    • • If loss of thrust is the result of uncommanded prop feather and the engine remains within operational limits (ITT and torque), it is possible for the propeller to eventually unfeather and restore useful power. An operating engine will provide power to accessories functions such as OBOGS, DEFOG, pressurization, and Hydraulics. Consider leaving engine running while monitoring descent rate
    • • Caution
    • o Consideration should be given to leaving the engine operating with PCL at midrange
    • • PROP SYS circuit breaker – reset, as required
    • o WARNING
    •  With the PROP SYS circuit breaker pulled and the PMU switch OFF, the feather dump solenoid will not be powered. Prop will feather at slower rate as oil pressure decreases and the feathering spring takes effect. Glide performance will be considerably reduced and it may not be possible to intercept or fly the emergency landing pattern.
    • • PCL – OFF
    • • Firewall shutoff handle – Pull
    • • Execute forced landing or eject
  13. • Uncommanded power changes/Loss of power - Indications
    • o Indications
    •  Uncommanded reduction in power/thrust
    •  If PMU left on:
    • • Lower than expected fuel flow
    • • Uncommanded decrease in N1
    •  If PMU OFF
    • • Step change in engine power as fuel metering unit reverts to normal condition for manual control
    •  Oil/engine/fuel system contamination may have similar symptoms to engine rollback. In addition, the engine may experience power surges or uncontrollable high power.
  14. • Uncommanded power changes/Loss of power - Critical action Items
    • o Critical Action Items
    •  PCL – Midrange
    • • NOTE
    • o Midrange is a physical PCL angle that approximates midway position between IDLE and MAX
    • o A PCL position above IDLE will provide the best chance for the engine to recover
    • o A midrange PCL position will minimize the potential of engine overtorque and/or overtempt when PMU is OFF.
    •  PMU Switch – OFF
    • • CAUTION
    • o There is a potential for ITT limits to be exceeded if the PMU switch is turned OFF with ITT >=820°C
    • o Ground idle will not be available during landing rollout and taxi. Plan for increased landing distances due to higher IDLE N1 (~67%)
    •  PROP SYS Circuit Breaker (left front console) – Pull, if NP stable below 40%
    • • NOTE
    • o With constant airspeed and torque, RPM can be considered stable is below 40% and no upward change for 3 second period
    • o If Np indicator displays red X’s, switching the PMU to NORM and back OFF will reset the PMU and should restore the Np indication)
    • o Propeller should come out of feather within 15-20 seconds
    •  PCL – as required
    • • WARNING
    • o If rate of descent (on VSI at 125 KIAS, Gear, Flaps, Speed brake up, and 4-6% torque is greater than 1500 fpm, increase torque as necessary (up to 131%) to achieve 1350 – 1500 fpm. If engine power is insufficient to achieve 1350 – 1500, move PCL to OFF.
    • • NOTE
    • o Consider moving PCL through full range of motion to determine power available
    •  IF POWER IS SUFFICIENT FOR CONTINUED FLIGHT
    •  PEL – execute
    •  IF POWER IS INSUFFICIENT TO COMPLETE PEL
    • • If loss of thrust is the result of uncommanded prop feather and the engine remains within operational limits (ITT and torque), it is possible for the propeller to eventually unfeather and restore useful power. An operating engine will provide power to accessories functions such as OBOGS, DEFOG, pressurization, and Hydraulics. Consider leaving engine running while monitoring descent rate
    • • Caution
    • o Consideration should be given to leaving the engine operating with PCL at midrange
    • • PROP SYS circuit breaker – reset, as required
    • o WARNING
    •  With the PROP SYS circuit breaker pulled and the PMU switch OFF, the feather dump solenoid will not be powered. Prop will feather at slower rate as oil pressure decreases and the feathering spring takes effect. Glide performance will be considerably reduced and it may not be possible to intercept or fly the emergency landing pattern.
    • • PCL – OFF
    • • Firewall shutoff handle – Pull
    • • Execute forced landing or eject
  15. • Fire warning in-flight - General
    o Illumination of the FIRE annunciator indicates the possibility of fire in the engine compartment. Pending confirmation of an engine fire, initiate PEL procedures with the intention of landing as soon as possible.
  16. • Fire warning in-flight - Indications
    •  Fire annunciator + one of the following confirms fire
    •  Smoke
    •  Flames
    •  Engine vibration
    •  Unusual sounds
    •  High ITT
    •  Fluctuating oil pressure
    •  Fluctuating oil temperature
    •  Fluctuating hydraulic pressure
  17. • Fire warning in-flight - Critical Action Items
    •  IF FIRE IS CONFIRMED
    • • WARNING
    • o Fire annunciator + one of the following confirms fire
    • o Smoke
    • o Flames
    • o Engine vibration
    • o Unusual sounds
    • o High ITT
    • o Fluctuating oil pressure
    • o Fluctuating oil temperature
    • o Fluctuating hydraulic pressure
    • • PCL – OFF
    • • Firewall shutoff handle – pull
    •  IF FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED
    • • Forced Landing – execute
    •  IF FIRE DOES NOT EXTINGUISH OR FORCED LANDING IS IMPRACTICAL
    • • EJECT – BOTH
    •  IF FIRE IS NOT CONFIRMED
    • • PEL – EXECUTE
    •  WARNING
    • • A fire warning light with no accompanying indication is not a confirmed fire. Do not shut down an engine for an unconfirmed fire
    • • High engine compartment temperatures resulting from a bleed air leak may cause illumination of the fire warning light. Reducing PCL towards IDLE will decrease bleed air and possibly extinguish light. Advancing the PCL may be necessary to intercept ELP. Regardless, continue to investigate for indications confirming engine fire.
    • • If fire can not be confirmed, the fire warning system may be at fault and should be tested as conditions permit. If only one fire loop annunciator is illuminated, a false fire indication may exist if the other loop tests good.
  18. • Smoke and fume elimination - General
    • o WARNING
    •  Under varying conditions of fire and/or smoke where aircraft control is jeopardized, the pilot has the option of actuating CFS or ejecting
    • o NOTE
    •  If a faulty component can be identified as the source of smoke and fumes, turn defective unit off or pull respective circuit breaker. Hot battery bus circuit breakers are not accessible in flight.
  19. • Smoke and fume elimination - Indications
     Smoke and fume in cockpit
  20. • Smoke and fume elimination - Flight Manual/PCL procedures
    •  Descent below 10000 ft MSL – initiate as required
    •  Pressurizationg switch – ram/dump
    • • NOTE
    • o Selecting Ram/Dump does not shut off bleed air inflow
    • o Defog is turned off when ram/dump is selected
    •  Bleed air inflow switch – off
    •  IF SMOKE/FIRE PERSITS
    •  BAT and GEN switches – off
    • • WARNING
    • o OBOGS will be inoperative once the main battery is depleted or with battery failure
    • • AUX BAT switch – off as required
    •  CFS – rotate 90° counterclockwise and pull (if necessary)
    • • Warning
    • o To prevent injury, ensure oxygen mask is on and visor is down prior to actuating the CFS system
    •  Restore electrical power – as required
    • • NOTE
    • o Recover aircraft without electrical power is possible. If IMC penetrations is required, turn the AUX BAT on. Backup flight instrument and lighting, fire detection (fire 1 only) and VHF radio (tuning with standby VHF) will be powered for approx. 30 mins. Gear must be extended by emergency means. Flap lever is powered through hot battery bus and should work as long as main battery has not depleted. With normal flap extension and a loss of power to battery bus, flaps will retract. Gear and flap indicators will not function. Exterior lights will not function. Unless faulty component has been isolated, further restoration of electrical power is not recommended.
    •  Land as soon as possible
    • • NOTE
    • o With BAT and GEN off, landing gear must be extended using the emergency landing gear extension system.
  21. • PMU Failure - General
    • o Automatic control of torque, ITT, and N1 is lost and must be manually controlled.
    • o Propeller governing, including overspeed protection, will be provided by the mechanical overspeed governor
  22. • PMU Failure - Indications
    •  Simultaneaous illumination of PMU FAIL and PMU STATUS
    •  Possible step change in engine power as the fuel management unit reverts to the nominal setting for manual
  23. • PMU Failure - Flight Manual/PCL procedures
    •  If the PMU FAIL warning illuminates:
    • • PCL – minimum practical for flight
    • • PMU switch – off
    • o CAUTION
    •  Before resetting PMU or switching PMU to OFF, set power at lowest practical setting in order to minimize power shift
    • o NOTE
    •  If PMU failure is accompanied by uncommanded power changes other than anticipated step changes, do not reset PMU. Refer to Uncommanded Power Changes/Loss of Power/Uncommanded Propeller Feather
    •  Pilot should consider moving the PCL through the full range of motion to determine power available
    •  To reset PMU
    • • IGN, START, and PMU circuit breakers (left front console) – check and reset if necessary
    • • PMU Switch – Norm (attempt second reset if necessary)
    • o CAUTION
    •  If the above actions do not clear the annunciator(s), the pilot(s) should be aware that automatic torque, ITT, and N1 limiting will not be available
    • • IF PMU Reset is Unsuccessful
    • o PMU switch – off
    • o Land as soon as practical
    •  CAUTION
    • • Ground idle will not be available during landing rollout and taxi. Plan for increased landing distances due to higher IDLE N1 (approx. 67%)
  24. • Controlled and Uncontrolled ejection - Difference
    •  Controlled
    • • During low altitude ejection, chances for successful ejection can be greatly increased by pulling up to exchange airspeed for altitude if conditions permit. Avoid ejecting with a sink rate, which degrades seat performance.
    • • Altitude – 2000 AGL minimum
    •  Uncontrolled
    • • If aircraft is not controllable, ejection must be accomplished regardless of speed, altitude, or attitude since immediate ejection offers the best opportunity for survival.
    • • Altitude – 6000 AGL
  25. o Ejection Critical action item
    •  Notify crewmember of decision to eject (both)
    •  Altitude – 2000 ft AGL minimum (recommended)
    • • WARNING
    • o If aircraft is not controllable, ejection must be accomplished regardless of speed, altitude, or attitude since immediate ejection offers the best opportunity for survival
    • o 2000 AGL Controlled. 6000 AGL Uncontrolled
    • o Do not postpone decision to eject
    •  Ejection handle – pull both
    • • Use MOR handle if over mountainous terrain exceeding 8000 MSL
    • • Ejecting at slow speeds may cause risers to remain velcroed together.
  26. o Ejection seat sequence mitigation procedures
    •  Eject to seat separation – 4.37 sec (FCP) and 4.00 sec (RCP)
    •  Factors in ejection envelope
    • • Dive angle
    • o Wings level to 90 degrees
    • • Bank angle
    • o 0 - 180
    • • Sink rate
    • o 0 – 10000 fpm
    • • Airspeed
    • o 130 KIAS – 370 KIAS

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Author:
dundane
ID:
327370
Filename:
C2201
Updated:
2017-01-13 02:26:24
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C2201
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C2201
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