MCAT General Chemistry
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1.6 *10 ^-19 columbs
"z" atomic number
atomic number is equal to the number of proton found in an atom if the element.
protons plus neutrons
electrons are 1/2000 of a proton
averaged weight of naturally occuring isotope of an element found on the periodic table
- longer the half life the more stable gives info on the proportion of isotopes of the element
- as A and Z increase half life increase
- energy of quanta
angular momentum of an electron orbiting a hydrogen nucleus
energy of an electron
rydberg unit of energy
general energy rule
All systems tend toward minimal energy
Electrons get "AHED"
- A- absorb light
- higher potential
- Distant from nucleus
- hydrogen emission lies corresponding from n> or =2 to n=1.
- to 2 is the Balmer series
- 4 to 3
- inversely proportional to wavelength
- negative energy of photon means that there is absorption and vice versa
uniqueness of elements
each element has a characteristic set of energy level thus a characteristic AES and AAS
general color rule
we see color that is reflected and not absorbed by a compund
basic numerical equivalents for fractions
heinsberg uncertainty principle
cannot pinpoint the exact location of an electron in an orbital at a given time
no two electrons can have nthe same four quantum numbers in a given atom
shapes of the particle is dependent on the subshell that it is found in.
electrons fill from lowest to highest energy subshell
- within a subshell that has more than one orbital.orbitals are filled do that the maximum amount of half-filled orbitals with parrallel spins is achieved.
- in a diagram each electron would fill their own orbital.
- half-filled and fully filled shells have lower energy thus more stability
- parrel spin in unpaired electrons
- They will orient their spins in alignment with a magnetic field
- causes an attraction
- para like to pair up. be attracive. fill in allign
- like to diverge of depart
- does not align w/ b field and repelled by the b field
- They already have their paired electrons
sugars are classified
aldose and ketose
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
the postion and momentum of an electron is impossible to detect at any given time
the subshells must fill from highest to lowest
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