What are the 6 specific stages of acute illness we talked about in class?
Assumption of sick role
Recovery or rehab.
What are the 3 characteristics of chronic illness we talked about?
Permanent impairment of disability
Residual physical or cognitive disability
Need for special rehab or long term care
There are many factors for indicating health. Name ten.
3. Tobacco use
4. Susbstance abuse
5. Sexual behavior
6. Mental health
8. Environmental quality
10. Access to health care. (this is the one we can help the most with)
What are some of the causes of cellular aging?
Wear and tear
Antioxidant damage to DNA
Ischemia doesn't directly cause cell injury, describe the sequence to arrive at cell injury via ischemia.
Clot-ischemia-hypoxia-lessATP-accumulation of ions-swelling-rupture
How do infectious agents cause cell damage?
Bacteria-release endotoxins and exotoxins
Virus- Directly: RNA viruses disrupt function of plasma membrane and ion transport and cause rupture of cell. Indirectly: They integrate themselves in the cellular genome, make copies of themselves and cause the host cell to be tagged and destroyed by T-cells
How can an immune system attack cause cell damage?
Antibodies attach to the tagged cell. There is activation of the complement system and the inflammatory cells.
how would a genetic problem affect cell health?
By changing the genome, cell production would be altered. This would directly affect the cells function, and usually result in its destruction.
Discuss the affect of nutrition, chemical, and physical damage to a cell.
Nutrition-if cells lack nutrition they will die.
Chemical- injury to cells directly, pH and antioxidants
Kinin system: Hageman-bradykinin-pain and vasodilation
Complement system: Chemical activation- Vasodilation,chemoactic agent, Opsonization, MAC
Steps in phagocytosis.
Opsonization-binding to leukocytes-invagination d/t calcium influx-incapsulation-digestion(pus/purulence)
Characteristics of chronic inflammation.
Accumulation of specific leukocytes (macrophages and lymphocytes) and plasma cells
Granulation tissues, endothelial cells and fibroblasts
If I had tissues in the process of healing and fibroblasts where present to stimulate the ECM, what other chemicals would be present?
Fibronectin, proteoglycans and elastin, collagenh
What is tissue regeneration?
What is tissue Repair?
What do keloids cause?
What happens in the brain?
Regeneration: When the perenchymal cells experience regrowth
Repair: Formation of scare tissue
Keloids: hypertrophic deposition of collagen
Brain: permanent, no regeneration, no fibroblast for scar tissue, so there are holes. no collagen. astrocytes form glail scars.
What is the first line of defense?
The innate immune system. Non-specific, non-adaptive. Skin and inflammatory response. Macrophages responding to any pathogens, not specific ones.
What do we know about acquired immunity?
Specific antigen = specific response
Humeral and cell mediated components
Active v. Passive
What are the main Leukocytes used by innate immunity?
NK cells -
Neutrophils - PMN cells
Monocytes - become macrophages
B-Cells bind with antigens. Very rapid. Can be passively transmitted.
Helper t-cells. 75% of t cells. Stimulate b cells to make more antibodies. The antibodies will bind with antigens to help the innate leukocytes, like the macrophages other T-cells and NK cells kill them.
How is the brain linked to the immune system?
Via the Autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine outflow via the pituitary. May explain how stress and emotion cna modify a person capacity to cope with infection or cancer and influence autoimmune disease.