MCAT Organic Chemistry
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geminial diols versus vicinal diols
vicinal are on adjacent carbons and geminial are on the same carbongemini twins and in the vicinitydiols are also refered to as glycols
sugars are classified into two types
aldose and ketose
smallest ketone with 3 carbons instead of two
- named with -oate
- the alkoxyl portion of the compound is named first. Then the acidic carbon region
- They have a oxygen in between their adjacent carbonyl groups
- Their suffix when they are the highest priority is -oic anhydride.
highest priority group on MCAT
- same molecules rotated differently round a bond
- conformers are a pair of conformational isomers together.
- flipping of a chair conformation so that substituents change from axial to equatorial and vice versa.
USED to see the cnformation of conformational isomers
most favorable conformation.
least favorable newman conformation
totally eclipsed conformation
cyclohexane cyclic conformer
- cyclohexane an be three different coformations:
- boat, chair, and twist boat
what position/orientation do bulky substituents favor?
- aka constitutional isomers and have different connectivity
- type of isomer
having the same chemical formula but different chemical structure
lowest energy states
when like charges are away from one another and opposite charges are close to one another
- gauche= when the largest groups are 60 degrees apart
- anti- when the two largest groups are 180 degrees away from the other
- totally eclipsed when the large groups are completely overlapping one another.
- eclipsed- when the two largest groups are 120 degrees apart from one another
- so in order from lowest degree of separation to highest is as follows:
- totally eclipsed ( least favorable)
- staggered (anti) ( most energetically stable)
ring strain( a ring TAN )
- torsion strain- eclipse or gauche
- angle strain- differ from ideal angle
- nonbonded strain- non adjacent fight for same space
axial and equatorial
- axial- upo and down
- equitorial - stick out
Bulky group prefer what newman projection position
Enationmers have the same chemical and physical characteristics except:
- optical activity (opposite direction)
- reactions in chiral environment
what determine the amount of light rotated
- concentration of optically active substance
- the length of the tube that the light passes through.
what are the standard conditions for optical activity
- 1g/ml of optic act. substance
- 1 dm of tube length (10cm)
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