PrevMed1- Dz Surveillance

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  1. What is surveillance?
    systematic collection, analysis, and interp of data and dissemination of information to those who should take action
  2. Contrast surveillance, monitoring, and screening.
    • surveillance: data collection with the objective of intervening to change the outcome in a defined population
    • monitoring: surveillance without a threshold
    • screening: testing to ID individuals with infection or disease to protect public health; measurement of prevalence in screened populations
  3. The critical goal of surveillance is to...
    control and/or prevent diseases with timely intervention
  4. What is the objective of early detection?
    identify dz rapidly before significant spread
  5. For early detection, the surveillance system should... (3)
    • be continuous
    • have comprehensive coverage of the population
    • be sensitive (negative means they really don't have the dz) with very low design prevalence
  6. What is the objective of demonstration of freedom (of dz)?
    provide proof of no disease (for trade support, stopping control measures, ad hoc or risk-based testing instead of continuous, etc)
  7. Surveillance to demonstrate freedom of dz: (3)
    • does not need to be continuous, but may be ad hoc or intermittent
    • can use risk-based sampling 
    • uses a higher design prevalence than early detection
  8. What are the purposes of surveillance in apparently non-infected populations and infected populations?
    • absent of dz: early detection or demonstration of freedom
    • dz present: case finding, measuring levels of dz
  9. What is the objective of case finding?
    ID infected animals, flocks, or herd during a control program
  10. Case finding surveillance should... (4)
    • use comprehensive coverage of the population, with a focus on high risk pops
    • parts of the population
    • be ongoing
    • have good individual herd or animal sensitivity
  11. What is the objective of surveillance to measure levels of dz?
    to detect changes in the level of disease (esp increases)
  12. Surveillance to measure levels of dz: (3)
    • does not need to be continuous but can be ad hoc or periodic
    • should be based on representative sampling to avoid bias
    • should use a big enough sample size to give adequate precision
  13. Effectiveness of a surveillance program is dependent upon... (3)
    • quality of sampling
    • amount of surveillance being done
    • distribution of sampling
  14. What are the principals to meet the surveillance objectives? (3)
    • timeliness ( how rapidly the system can produce information (ongoing, regular, ad hoc)
    • population coverage
    • representativeness
  15. Contrast active and passive surveillance.
    • Active: utilizing samples or observations collected specifically for use by the surveillance program; needed for the rare or hard to detect dz
    • Passive: utilizing samples/ observations collected primarily for another purpose; reliant upon health care providers/labs to report cases of dz
  16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of passive surveillance?
    • advantage is efficiency, less resources needed
    • disadvantage is possibility of incomplete data/ underreporting
  17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of active surveillance?
    • advantage is high level of completeness, better for rare diseases
    • disadvantage is that it's much more expensive and needs more resources
  18. What are 2 types of passive surveillance and of active surveillance?
    • Passive: case-based (animals and people), syndromic (people)
    • Active: Biosensor (environment), pathogen screening (animals)
  19. Describe case-based surveillance.
    • List of reportable diseases
    • timeliness is within days to week
    • representativeness: required in all states
    • sensitivity: predetermined case definitions
  20. Describe syndromic surveillance.
    • signs symptoms indicative of a dz/ disorder are reported
    • timeliness is near real time
    • representativeness: entities willing/ able to participate
    • high sensitivity, low specificity; less severe cases may not be identified
  21. Describe the Biosensor method of active surveillance.
    • monitors samples from the environment
    • timeliness: 12-36 hours after agent release
    • representativeness: discrete locations only
    • sensitivity: does not confirm human exposure
    • used to monitor for bioterrorism
  22. Procedure by which some members of a given population are selected and measured as representatives of the entire population.
    sampling
  23. Representative sampling: prevalence in population ______ prevalence in sample.
    =
  24. Risk-based sampling: prevalence in population ______ prevalence in sample.
    <
  25. Biased sampling: prevalence in population ______ prevalence in sample.
  26. What are the steps of sampling? (5)
    • 1. define objectives
    • 2. ID target population
    • 3. determine required precision
    • 4. decide sampling units (group, herd, individuals, regions, etc)
    • 5. develop sampling frame (list of sampling units from which sample will be drawn)
  27. Contrast non-probability and probability sampling.
    • non-probability: convenience sampling
    • probability: simple random, systematic random, stratified random, cluster, multistage sampling
  28. Describe simple random sampling.
    • selects a fixed percentage of the sampling frame using a formal random process
    • known probability that an individual sampling unit will be selected from the sampling frame
  29. What are specific diseases that we have surveillance programs for? (6)
    • scrapies
    • TB
    • BSE
    • CWD
    • classic swine fever (CSF)
    • avian influenza

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Author:
Mawad
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327524
Filename:
PrevMed1- Dz Surveillance
Updated:
2017-01-19 16:43:19
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