Cardiovascular System: Blood ( 18)

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  1. General function of blood regarding..
    • -transportation
    • -regulation
    • -protection

    • Transportation: 
    • -Moves from blood vessels
    • -nutrients absorb in GI
    • -hormones released in endocrine
  2. Regulation
    • body temp: absorbs heat, releases to surface
    • body pH absorbs acid/base
    • fluid balance: H20 add/lost has proteins that give pressure
  3. Protection
  4. leukocyte, plasma protein ( immune syst)
    platelets-against blood loss
  5. 6 physical characteristics of blood
    • 1) Color: losts of 02=bright red , 
    •               Lack of O2=dark red
    • 2) Volume: Male 5-6L, Female 4-5 L 
    • 3)Viscosity: 4-5x more viscious than water
    • 4)Plasma conc. : Conc of solutes ex. dehydrated, plasma hypertonic, tissue fluid-->blood
    • 5)Temp: blood is 1C higher than body temp
    • 6)Blood pH: little alkaline 7.35-7.45
  6. Components of centrifuged blood
    • top: plasma 
    • middle: leukocytes, platelet, buffy coat - gray/white
    • bottom: erthyrocytes
  7. Whats hematocrit
    • % volume of all formed elements 
    • ( erthryocytes, leukocytes, platelets in the blood) 

    Males have more because of testosterone stimulates the kidney = EPO--> erythorcyte production
  8. How hemocrit changes in diff conditions
    dehydrated: hemocrite goes up

    blood doping: hemocrit goes up 

    anemia: hemocrit goes down
  9. Components of blood plasma
    • Water (92%) 
    • Protein - albumin
    • Other solute - na/k
  10. Whats colloid osmotic pressure
    • Osmatic pressure from plasma proteins 
    • high--low conc to balance water inside

    albumin helps the balancing

    • If plasma proteins go down ex. malnourish
    • colloid osmotic pressure goes down
  11. Function of plasma proteins 

    • Albumin:
    • Exerts the most colloid osmotic press. to maintain blood v. Transport protein, carry ions, hormones

    • Globulins: bind transport certain water insoluble molecules
    • ex. gamma=antibody

    Fibrogin: blood clot formation
  12. Name other solutes dissolved and non dissolved in blood plasma
    dissolved: electrolyte, nutrient, gases ( polar/charged)

    nondissolved: cholest, trigy, fatty acid
  13. Lifespan , gen function of 
    • erthrythrocytes 
    • leukocytes
    • platletes

    Erythrocytes: 120 days. Transport O2, CO2
  14. Leukocytes: 12 hours ( neutrophils)--> years ( lymphocytes)
  15. Platelets: 8-10 days, hemostasis
  16. Whats hemopoisis
    Makes new formed elements
  17. Erythropoeisis
    • -hormone secreted 
    • -diet req
    • -concenc

    Hormone: Erythropoetin controls the rate erthrocytes are made
  18. Need Iron, Vit B 
  19. 4.2-6.2 millioon per cubic mm
  20. Thrombopoiesis ( another name for platlets)
    - formation

    Myelod ( stem cell)
  21. Megakaroblast
  22. Megakaroyocyte ( large multi lobe)
  23. Make long extensions of themselves 
    attach to megakaryocyte
  24. Erythrocytes
    • -struct func
    • -benefits of no nucleus
    • -benefits of concave shape
    • -oxygen vs deoxyg

    Small bioconcave , no nucleus/organelles
  25. Transport O2, CO2
  26. bioconcave shape allows them to line up to pass capillaries
    no nucleus/organelle= more O2/CO2 to carry
  27. Components of hemoglobin
    • 2 alpha chains
    • 2 beta chains
    • both have a heme group 

    ( porphyrin + Fe+ allows O2 to attach)
  28. What factors stimulate the production of erythropoietin in the kidneys?
    O2 goes down: removal of aged erythrocytes, high altitude, blood loss 

    During erythrocyte destruction: globin is broken down into aminos (recycled) 

    Iron of hemoglobin is removed and moved by a globin protein ( transferrin) ---> liver/spleen where Fe+ bound to storage proteins 

    heme group turned in billirubin 

    blood doping : viscosity goes up
  29. Leukocyte

    granulocyte function
    neutrophil: phagocyte pathogen

    eosinophil: phagocyte antigen-antibody complex, allergens, destroy parositic worms

    basophil: release histamins, and heparine ( anticuagulate)
  30. Leukocyte


    - function of lymphocyte
    • lymphocyte: coordinate immune cell activity , attack pathogens, and infected cells 
    • make antibodies

    • monocytes: leave bv--> macrophages
    • phagocytes pathogens+ dead stuff
  31. Whats hemostasis, and what are its phases
    Stops bleeding

    1) Vascular spasm , vessles constrict to prevent leakage

    2) platelet plug, platlets go to injury and stick to exposed collagen fibers

    3)  Coagulation- inactive protein , fibrin in blood
  32. Blood coagulation pathways
    intrinsic: inside bv, platelets

    extrinsic: bv outside bv

    common: makes fibrin

Card Set Information

Cardiovascular System: Blood ( 18)
2017-01-20 17:18:23
A+P 142
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