Ecology 2.1: Energy Flow in Ecosystems
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What are the three major energy roles an organism may play in an ecosystem?
*Trick: Peter can dive
What are the four different types of consumers?
*Trick: Henry can overcome stage fright
Why are food webs a more realistic way of portraying ecosystems than food chains?
Organisms that are part of a food web have a much more diverse diet, therefore, have a much better chance of survival. Organisms that are only part of a food chain are at risk of a link being broken and losing energy/food, so may not survive.
How does the amount of available energy change from one level of an energy pyramid to the next level up?
The most energy is at the producer level of the energy pyramid. As you move up the pyramid, each level has less and less energy than the level below. An average energy pyramid gets its name from the shape of the diagram-wider at the base and narrower at the top. In general, 10% of the energy at one level of the food web is transferred to the next highest level.
An ecosystem on earth in which producers do not depend on sunlight for energy in the food making process is one that exists around deep-ocean hydrothermal vents known as “____________________”. Bacteria in this ecosystem use chemicals spewed out of the vents to make their own food. The bacteria in turn are food for other organisms such as shrimp and giant clams.
The amount of energy in the producer level limits the number of consumers the _______________can support. As a result, there are usually few organisms at the highest level in a food web.
Energy enters most ecosystems as _____________.
When an organism in an ecosystem _________, it obtains energy.
At each level in a food pyramid, there is less available ________________ than the level below.
A food web consists of many interconnected _____________.
The most energy available is at the ______________ level.
Consumers that eat only animals are ________________________.
- (Sometimes referred to as meat eaters/secondary or 2nd level consumers)
A ____________ consists of the many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem.
Organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials, or simple molecules, to the ecosystem are called _____________, or "nature's recyclers." These molecules can be used again by other organisms. Mushrooms and bacteria are common examples.
A consumer that eats both plants and animals is called an ________________.
- (Sometimes referred to as tertiary or 3rd level consumers)
A consumer that eats only plants is an____________________.
- (or plant eater/primary or 1st level consumer)
An organism that can make its own food is a _____________________.
producer (autotroph or self feeder)
_________________ are classified by what they eat.
A ____________________ is a series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.
A ________________ is a carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms.
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms is a _____________.
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web is called an ____________.
Energy is measured by scientists in _______.
kcal or kilocalories
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