Physiology

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Author:
JDaniel
ID:
32759
Filename:
Physiology
Updated:
2010-09-08 02:33:11
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Exam
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Notes for Exam 1
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  1. Scientific Rules
    • Only can test 'naturla run'
    • Determine Subjective vs Objective
    • Qualitative vs Quantitative
  2. Metric System
    • Meter = Base unit of length
    • Gram = Base unit of mass
    • Liter = Base unit of volume
    • Celsius = Base unit of Temperature
  3. Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis (must be testable)
    • Experiments (test hypothesis)
    • Results & Data
    • Conclusion (accept or reject hypothesis)
  4. Development of Pharmaceutical Drugs
    • Cellular / Molecular (in vitro = outside body)
    • Animal Experiments (in vivo = inside body) (90% fail at this level)
    • Clinical Trials - Phase I: Tested on healthy human volunteers
    • Clinical Trials - Phase II: Tested on target population
    • Cinical Trials - Phase III: Tested on wide variety (age, ethnic groups, and levels of health) all over the country
    • Cinical Trials - Phase IV: Tested for other possible uses
  5. Homeostasis
    • Maintain stable, constant condition.
    • Multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustment and regulation mechanisms make homeostasis possible.
    • Body Temperature = 37C
    • Blood pH = 7.3 - 7.4
  6. Negative Feedback Loops
    The output of the system acts to oppose the input of the system. If overall feed back is negative, system will be stable. Example = maintaining blood pressure
  7. Positive Feedback loop
    • 'A produces more of B which in turn produces more of A'
    • Examples - Blood Clotting & Contractions during childbirth
  8. Feed Forward Mechanism
    Feed-forward control is exemplified by the normal anticipatory regulation of heartbeat in advance of actual physical exertion. Feed-forward control can be likened to learned anticipatory responses to known cues.
  9. Most Common Elements in the Body
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Phosporus
    • Sulfur
  10. Elemental Make-Up
    • Proton: Located in Nucleus. Positive Charge (+). 1 AMU
    • Neutron: Located in Nucleus. Neutral Charge. 1 AMU
    • Electron: Located in Orbital. Negative Charge (-). 0 AMU

    • Atomic Number: Number of Protons
    • Atomic Mass: Number of protons and Neutrons
  11. Octet Rule
    • Must fill all previous shells first
    • First orbital holds 2 Electrons
    • All adjacent orbitals hold 8 Electrons
  12. Covalent Bonding
    • Outer orbitals are shared.
    • Organic Molecules bound in this manner.
    • Non-polar: Equal sharing of Electrons (Example H2)
    • Polar: Unequal sharing of Electrons (Example H2O)
  13. Ionic Bonding
    • Transfer of Electrons (Example NaCl)
    • Atoms seek to stabilize by completing their outer orbitals.
    • Inorganic molecules typically bond in this manner.
  14. Hydrogen Bonding
    • Hydrgoen atoms are slightly attracted to electronegative atoms
    • Examples: Oxygen, Nitrogen
    • Found in Protein, Enzymes, and DNA
  15. van der Waals Force
    Slight attraction of non-poplar molecules.
  16. pH Scale
  17. Organic Molecules in Biology
    • Carbon based
    • Covalent bonds allow for large compounds

    • Combined with Condensation / Dehydration RXN
    • Taken apart with Hydrolysis RXN
  18. Carbohydrates / Saccharides
    (Sugars)
    • Suffix -ose
    • Formula: CnH2nOn
    • Monosaccharides are simple sugars (Glucose)
    • Two monosaccharides can be joined covalently to form a disaccharide (Glucose + Glucose = Maltose + H2O)
    • Numerous monosaccharides joined together are called polysaccharides (Glycogen)
  19. Lipids
    (Fats)
    • Hydrophobic
    • Insoluble in polar solvents (water)
    • Stored in the body as triglyceride.
    • glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglyceride + 3 H2O
    • Palmitic Acid (saturated): single covalent bonds
    • Linolenic Acid (unsaturated): at least one double bond

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