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- Only can test 'naturla run'
- Determine Subjective vs Objective
- Qualitative vs Quantitative
- Meter = Base unit of length
- Gram = Base unit of mass
- Liter = Base unit of volume
- Celsius = Base unit of Temperature
- Hypothesis (must be testable)
- Experiments (test hypothesis)
- Results & Data
- Conclusion (accept or reject hypothesis)
Development of Pharmaceutical Drugs
- Cellular / Molecular (in vitro = outside body)
- Animal Experiments (in vivo = inside body) (90% fail at this level)
- Clinical Trials - Phase I: Tested on healthy human volunteers
- Clinical Trials - Phase II: Tested on target population
- Cinical Trials - Phase III: Tested on wide variety (age, ethnic groups, and levels of health) all over the country
- Cinical Trials - Phase IV: Tested for other possible uses
- Maintain stable, constant condition.
- Multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustment and regulation mechanisms make homeostasis possible.
- Body Temperature = 37C
- Blood pH = 7.3 - 7.4
Negative Feedback Loops
The output of the system acts to oppose the input of the system. If overall feed back is negative, system will be stable. Example = maintaining blood pressure
Positive Feedback loop
- 'A produces more of B which in turn produces more of A'
- Examples - Blood Clotting & Contractions during childbirth
Feed Forward Mechanism
Feed-forward control is exemplified by the normal anticipatory regulation of heartbeat in advance of actual physical exertion. Feed-forward control can be likened to learned anticipatory responses to known cues.
Most Common Elements in the Body
- Proton: Located in Nucleus. Positive Charge (+). 1 AMU
- Neutron: Located in Nucleus. Neutral Charge. 1 AMU
- Electron: Located in Orbital. Negative Charge (-). 0 AMU
- Atomic Number: Number of Protons
- Atomic Mass: Number of protons and Neutrons
- Must fill all previous shells first
- First orbital holds 2 Electrons
- All adjacent orbitals hold 8 Electrons
- Outer orbitals are shared.
- Organic Molecules bound in this manner.
- Non-polar: Equal sharing of Electrons (Example H2)
- Polar: Unequal sharing of Electrons (Example H2O)
- Transfer of Electrons (Example NaCl)
- Atoms seek to stabilize by completing their outer orbitals.
- Inorganic molecules typically bond in this manner.
- Hydrgoen atoms are slightly attracted to electronegative atoms
- Examples: Oxygen, Nitrogen
- Found in Protein, Enzymes, and DNA
van der Waals Force
Slight attraction of non-poplar molecules.
Organic Molecules in Biology
- Carbon based
- Covalent bonds allow for large compounds
- Combined with Condensation / Dehydration RXN
- Taken apart with Hydrolysis RXN
Carbohydrates / Saccharides
- Suffix -ose
- Formula: CnH2nOnMonosaccharides are simple sugars (Glucose)
- Two monosaccharides can be joined covalently to form a disaccharide (Glucose + Glucose = Maltose + H2O)
- Numerous monosaccharides joined together are called polysaccharides (Glycogen)
- Insoluble in polar solvents (water)
- Stored in the body as triglyceride.
- glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglyceride + 3 H2O
- Palmitic Acid (saturated): single covalent bonds
- Linolenic Acid (unsaturated): at least one double bond