Linux Ch1

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  1. Popular distributions
    • CentOS, RedHat, Fedora
    • Debian, Ubuntu
    • openSUSE
  2. An Operating System
    • Perform basic tasks:
    • Keeping track of files and directories on the disk
    • Controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers
    • Memory – real and virtual
    • Scheduling / Priority + more
    • It makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other
    • Responsible for basic security (file/directory)
  3. What is a Kernel
    • Core of the O/S
    • Software
    • The kernel is nontrivial
    • All distributions probably use the same kernel
    • The software glue
    • Interface with hardware devices
    • Allocating memory to individual programs
    • Allocating CPU time to individual programs
    • Enabling programs to interact with each other
    • Both Windows (ntoskrnl) and Linux (vmlinuz)
    • Unique to each O/S
    •    Not interchangeable
  4. Main components of Linux
    • Command-line Shells
    • Graphical User Interfaces (GUI)
    • Utility Programs
    • Libraries
    • Productivity Programs
  5. Command-line Shells
    • Linux started as command-line based
    • –Command-line environment uses a shell
    • –Many shells available
    •     bash, csh(C shell), ...
  6. Graphical User Interfaces and Desktop Interfaces
    • GUI for short
    • Icons, menus, mouse interface
    • Base for GUI is X Windows System ( X for Short)
    • Desktop Interfaces
    •     GNOME–GNU Object Model Environment
    •     KDE–K Desktop Environment
    •     others
    • Able to switch between Desktops easily
    • Program Launchers
    • File manager
    •      Nautilus default for CentOS / Fedora
    • Displays contents of a directory as collection of icons or file names
    • Manage files and directories
    •     –Create files or folders
    •     –Copy files or folders
    •     –Delete files or folders
    • Window Controls Multiple virtual desktops
    • Logout Options
  7. Utility Programs
    • Wide Variety of Utility programs
    • May vary from distribution to distribution
    •     Calculators, Calendars,
    •     Text Editors, Disk maintenance tools
    • Available through menus on Desktop
    • Technical Administration utilities
    •      Network support etc
    • Can download and install others
  8. Libraries
    • Used mostly by developers (programmers)
    • A collection of programming functions for use
    • Example:“libc”
    • –The term "libc" is commonly used as a shorthand for the "standard C library“
    • –a library of standard functions that can be used by all C programs (and sometimes by programs in other languages)
    • Many other libraries available
    •    Some for GUI
    •    Parsing options
  9. Productivity Programs
    • Web Browsers
    • Office Suite software (Open Office)Word processors, Presentation managers, Database, Spread Sheet etc
  10. Investigating User Interfaces
    • Text Based
    • Command Line
    • Login with user name and password
    • Uses shell (CentOS / Fedora:  BASH)
    •     Bourne Again Shell
    • Command Prompt
    • Many commands available
  11. Command-line prompt Consists of:
    • [root@localhost ~]#
    • User name
    • Name of computer at which you are working
    • Last directory name in current working directory
    • $ character for standard user
    • # character for root (administrator)
    • Parameters–Define what command will operate on
    • Options–Alter how command operates
  12. pwd
    • mv
    • cp
    • pwd   : display current working directory
    • mv   : move or rename a file
    • cp   : copy a file
  13. mount
    • umount
    • cd
    • mount   : mount a device for access
    • umount   : unmount a resource when finished
    • cd   : change directories
  14. ls
    • ls -l
    • find
    • ls   : list the contents of a directory
    • ls –l  : list the contents of a directory with long format
    • find   : search for a file or directory name
  15. mkdir
    • rmdir
    • cat
    • mkdir   : make a directory
    • rmdir   : remove a directory
    • cat   : display the contents of a file
  16. touch
    • ifconfig
    • touch   : create an empty file
    • ifconfig  : display the status of your network interfaces
  17. Investigating User Interfaces
    • Graphical Based
    • Modeled off Macintosh
    • Two elements separate
    •   User interface one element
    •   Operating System separate element
    • X Windows System interface
    •   Run as a user level application (more stable)
    •   If GUI fails O/S continues – command line
    •   Not a complete user interface
    •   Defines how basic object are drawn
    •   Display windows across a network on another workstation
  18. Source code
    Compiler

    Source code –Programming code human beings use to write software programs
  19. Compiler –Software that turns source code into binary code, but does not execute the binary code
  20. Translator
    • Binary code
    • Open source
    • Translator –Software that turns source code temporarily into binary code and executes it
    • Binary code –Code that machines need to run/understand software programs
    • Open source –Freely available source code
  21. Linux to Unix
    • Linux is modeled after UNIX
    • UNIX create in 1969 at AT&T’s Bell Labs
    • Many projects
    • –Kernel
    • –GNU project (open source replacements for all elements of UNIX
    • –Xorg-X11
    • –Desktops
    • –Server programs
    •   Web servers
    •   Email servers
    •   File servers
    • User Productivity programs
  22. Linus Torvalds
    • Decided to create UNIX-like operating system kernel for IBM-compatible PC
    • Solicited help via Internet
    • Released Linux kernel under GPL
  23. Operating Systems have two forms of Kernels
    • Monolithic (Linux)
    • Provides all services the user application needs
    • Used by Linux for the most part
    • Micro-Kernel
    • Small core set of services
    • Other modules perform other functions
    • Used by Windows via Executive Services
    •   Process management
    •   I/O
    •   Memory management plus more

Card Set Information

Author:
slc53
ID:
327675
Filename:
Linux Ch1
Updated:
2017-01-25 01:23:02
Tags:
Linux Ch1
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Description:
Linux Ch1
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