# PE Studies Stage 3

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1. What is the Principle of Inertia?
“Objects keep doing what they are doing”
2. Define Equilibrium.
Equilibrium exists if the net force is zero
3. Define Net force
The result of all forces acting on an object
4. Identify 7 types of force
• Applied
• Normal
• Spring
• Tension
• Friction
• Air Resistance
• Gravity
5. What is Newton's first law?
Law of inertia
6. How would you quantitatively analyse a vector?
Measure it using numbers
7. How would you qualitatively analyse vectors?
Describe it using words.
8. What is acceleration?
A vector. The rate of change of velocity.
9. What is a vector?
Something that has a direction and a magnitude eg velocity
10. What is impulse?
Force x time. How much force is acting on and object and how long the force acts for.
11. What is the impulse momentum relationship?
Impulse causes a change in momentum. This will usually change the velocity of the object.
12. Study this diagram
13. What is Newton's second law of motion?
• The acceleration of an object as
• produced by a net force is directly proportional to
• the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction
• as the net force, and inversely proportional to the
• mass of the object.
14. What is the Sliding Filament Theory?
Muscle fibres shorten when actin filaments slide inward on myosin filaments - pulling the z-lines closer together.
15. Define periodisation.
Divide time into specific blocks. Set goals or activities for each block of time throughout the training year.
16. What is peaking?
Being in the absolute best condition (physical, emotional and mental) at a specific time for an event or race.
17. What is Tapering?
reduce your training volume two weeks prior to event. Reduce duration of training but maintain intensity.
18. What is overtraining?
• A physical, behavioral and emotional condition that occurs when the
• volume and intensity of an individual's exercise exceeds their recovery
• capacity.
19. What does overtraining look like?
Cease making progress, and can even begin to lose strength and fitness, frequent sickness, fatigue.
20. What is a holistic program?
Looking at the whole system rather than just concentrating on individual components.
21. How does the cardio vascular system respond to exercise in heat?
• Increased HR
• Increased Stroke volume
• therefore increased cardiac output
• Redistribution of blood flow
22. How does the body cool itself when exercising in heat?
• Thermoregulation
• Recpetors signal brain, brain coordinates systems, regulators work to cool (sweating, redistribution of blood, increase HR, vasodilation)
23. What are nutritional interventions?
Treatments or supplements to enhance performance and balance dietary gaps.
24. Identify 3 examples of nutritional interventions.
• Sports drinks
• Creatine
• Citrate
• Electrolytes
• Zinc
• Vitamens
• Iron
• Calcium
• Liquid meal replacement
25. How can we measure leadership status?
26. What is a sociogram?
Graphic representation of social links within a team.
27. What are the levels of the multi dimensional model of change?
• Pre contemplation
• Contemplation
• Preparation
• Action
• Maintenance
28. What is Life Coaching?
Service providing clients with feedback, insights and guidance from an outside vantage point. using sport coaching techniques to guide life decisions.
29. What is equity and social justice?
• Equity is fairness.
• Social Justice is a fair distribution of advantages, opportunities and benefits among all members of a society.
30. How can equity and social justice be used in sport?
Creating opportunities or advantage for groups of people who have an unfair disadvantage eg women, disabled or isolated groups.
31. What is Segmental Interaction?
Force acting on a segment can be transferred to the next segment.
32. What is dynamical systems theory?
The body is a complex mix of all systems (muscular, skeletal, cardio, neural etc). These systems are interrelated and skilled performance occurs when these systems coordinate movement patterns involving timing, consistency and coordination.
33. What is kinematic chain?
Assembly of several kinematic pairs connecting rigid body segments. Chain or linked body segments where force is transferred from proximal to distal.
34. Define Balance.
A state of equilibrium
35. Define stability.
36. What is the difference between stability and balance?
• Stability - wide base of support, low centre of gravity, able to resist force. Still.
• Balance - can be static or dynamic, ability to maintain equilibirum even if in an unstable state.
37. What is centre of gravity?
The point within something at which gravity can be considered to act
38. What is Bernoulli's principle?
The faster molecules within a fluid move, the less pressure they exert on objects around them. And objects move from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
39. What is the Magnus effect?
A spinning object flying in a fluid creates a whirlpool of fluid around itself. This whirlpool makes the surrounding fluid travel at different speeds. This then brings into effect Bernoulli's principle.
40. What is drag?
Resistance to motion through a fluid. Caused by the flow of fluid past the object.
41. What is a chonic injury?
Resulting from the cumulative effects of repeated exposure to a force not sufficient to cause acute injury Long term, takes a long time to recover. Eg shin splints.
42. What is an Acute injury?
Sudden onset and short duration. eg fracture
43. What is resilience?
Recovering easily from adversity, oppostion or failure. Able to "bounce back"
44. What environmental conditions will influence program design?
• Playing surface
• Weather - rain, sun, tempreture
• Wind
• Altitude
• Safety
45. What is Carron's Model of Group Cohesion?
Four factors influence group cohesion - environment, personal, team and leadership.
46. What is group cohesion?
Forces which act to keep the group together.
47. What is group dynamics theory?
How small groups or teams form and interact eg, tuckmans theory of group dynamics
48. What are the stages of Tuckman's group dynamics theory?
• Forming
• Storming
• Norming
• Performing