Chapter 9 Science
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What is an air mass
an air mass is huge volume of air responsible for types of weather, or a body of air that has about the same temperature and moisture throughout.
What is the atmosphere
mixture of gases that surrounds Earth, or a mixture of gases that surrounds the planet.
What is climate
The normal pattern of weather that occurs in an area over a long period of time, or the normal patter of weather in an area over many years.
What is El Nino
Periodic change in the direction of warm ocean currents across the Pacific Ocean, or a name given to a periodic change in direction of warm ocean currents across the Pacific Ocean
What is a front
Narrow region between two air masses that have different properties, or a body of air that has about the same temperature and moisture throughout.
What is the mesosphere
Layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere
What is an ocean current
Moving stream of water created by winds pushing against the ocean's surface
What is the stratosphere
Layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere and below the mesosphere
What is the thermosphere
The outermost layer of the atmosphere, above the mesosphere
What is the troposphere
Layer of Earth's atmosphere closet to Earth's surgace and containing about three-fourths of the atmosphere's gases
Composition of Earth's air
Nitrogen, oxegen, water vapor, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, nitrogen and oxegen are about 90%
Structure of the atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, meosophere, thermosphere
Most of Earth's water is in oceans. When water evaporates from oceans, it becomes water vapor in the air. The warm moist air rises and moves over land. Air that meets mountains are forced higher, where temperatues are colder. Cold air can hold less water than warm air can. So, the water condenses into tiny water droplets. The droplets form clouds that can drop rain or snow on one side of the mountain. This side which faces the wind is called the windward side. Some of the wettest places on Earth are the windward sides of mountains. When the air finally crosses to the other side of the mountain most of the water is gone. Dry winds sweep down this side of the mountain called the leeward side. These dry areas on the leaward slopes are called rain shadows. Desert climates are often in rain shadows. (evaporation, condensation, precipitation, dry air)
Difference between weather and climate
Weather:weather is the temperature and precipation on any day
Climate:the normal pattern of weather in an area over a certain amount of time.
Four main kinds of air masses and how they affect weather
Maritime polar (mP), maritime tropical (mT), continental polar (cP), continental tropical (cT), mP and mT are responsible for fog and drizzle, cP and cT bring fair weather
What happens when two air masses meet
a front forms
How ocean currents affect weather
Warm currents move warm ocean water toward polar regions, cold currents move cold ocean water toward the equator
What is radar, and why is it useful in forecasting weather
a useful tool for observing and forcasting weather, so you can tell what the weather is gonna be like
How to read a weather map
By looking at the symbols and colors
The four weather instruments in your textbook and what they measure
Thermometer: temperature, anemometer: windspeed, barometer: air pressure, and rain gauge: amount of rain
Compare and contrast land and sea breezes
Contrast:a sea breeze flow from the water to the land, land breezes flow from the land to the water, or during night the land cools faster, and during the day the sea cools faster.
Compare:They are both breezes
compare and contrast warm and cold fronts
Compare:warm front forms when warm air movesinto an area, cold front forms when cold air moves into an area, light rain: warm front, heavy rain: cold front
Contrast: They are both fronts
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