Intro Soc 1

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  1. Which of the following are always members of a person's family of orientation?
    Parent(s)
  2. A family unit that is composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household is
    an extended family.
  3. The concurrent marriage of a person of one sex (male or female) with two or more members of the opposite sex (male or female) is known as
    polygamy.
  4. The practice of marrying within one's own social group or category is
    endogamy.
  5. The social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services is
    the economy.
  6. Tangible objects that are necessary or desired are referred to as
    goods.
  7. Steel workers who process metal ore are engaged in what kind of production?
    Secondary sector
  8. Private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention, is characteristic of
    capitalism.
  9. The means through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups is
    politics.
  10. Power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive is known as
    authority.
  11. According to Max Weber, power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities is what kind of authority?
    Charismatic
  12. Which of the following provides U.S. citizens a voice in their government through elected representatives who serve as bridges between the citizenry and the government?
    Representative democracy
  13. Which of the following is NOT a manifest function of education?
    Production of social networks
  14. "Proper" attitudes toward education, socially approved dress and manners, knowledge about books, art, music, and other forms of high and popular culture are all examples of
    cultural capital.
  15. Assignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores, previous grades, or both is
    tracking.
  16. The type of social arrangement in which people are able to gain higher positions based on their intellectual and educational credentials rather than through the influence of personal contacts is
    a meritocracy.
  17. Belief in a single supreme being or God who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world is
    monotheism.
  18. The study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population is
    social epidemiology.
  19. According to Talcott Parsons, each of the following applies to persons who play the sick role, EXCEPT
    they are blamed for their own illness.
  20. All of the following are factors that have eroded the American Dream for the middle class, EXCEPT
    the need for a college degree as an entry-level job requirement.
  21. Who are the working poor?
    People who live from just above to just below the poverty line.
  22. Which of the following BEST expresses the functionalist explanation of social inequality?
    Positions that are most important for the survival of society must be filled by the most qualified people who are highly rewarded.
  23. The hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources is
    social stratification.
  24. According to Karl Marx, which of the following statements about capitalists is NOT true?
    They are vulnerable to displacement by machines or cheap labor.
  25. Large computer software corporations are representative of twenty-first century capitalism, which increasingly is based on
    information technology.
  26. According to Max Weber, individual power depends on a person's position within
    bureaucracies.
  27. For the upper class, wealth most often is the result of
    inheritance.
  28. Which of the following categories of people has the highest net worth overall?
    Married persons
  29. According to Karl Marx's theory of class relations,
    class relationships involve inequality and exploitation.
  30. Karl Marx's term for government, schools, churches, and all other social institutions that produce and disseminate ideas that perpetuate the existing system of exploitation is society's
    superstructure.
  31. In Max Weber's stratification typology, which class consists of skilled, semiskilled and unskilled workers?
    The working class
  32. The respect or regard with which a person is regarded by others is
    prestige.
  33. Which of the following factors is NOT a contributor to the global feminization of poverty?
    High-income nations are importing poor women to their countries to provide them better paying jobs and marketable training.
  34. All of the following statements regarding contingent work are true, EXCEPT that it
    offers advantages to workers but can be detrimental to employers.
  35. The process by which some characteristics of a profession are eliminated is
    deprofessionalization.
  36. Negotiations between employers and labor union leaders on behalf of workers are referred to as
    collective bargaining.
  37. All of the following are shared by members of the same ethnic groups, EXCEPT
    a common educational level.
  38. What do sociologists term a group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights within a society?
    Majority
  39. A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups is referred to as
    prejudice.
  40. A football coach is happy to work with African-American players, but feels that white fans will accept only a certain percentage of people of color on the team, thus affecting his hiring practices. According to sociologist Robert Merton, this coach is
    an unprejudiced discriminator.
  41. At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by the genitalia used in the reproductive process, which are referred to as
    primary sex
  42. Preference for emotional sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both sexes (bisexuality) is one's
    orientation.
  43. The culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity" are known as
    gender.
  44. In the United States, males traditionally are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness, whereas females are expected to be passive and nurturing, which illustrates the concept of
    gender role.
  45. It is the year 2010. Mark and Sheeree Jones are contemplating whether or not to start a family. After much discussion, they decide against having children at this time. A sociologist would most likely attribute their decision to all of the following factors EXCEPT
    a rise in involuntary infertility.
  46. An estimate of the average lifetime in years of people born in a specific year is
    life expectancy.
  47. All of the following statements regarding the relationship between age and poverty in the United States are true, EXCEPT
    older persons are at a much greater risk of living in poverty than are children.
  48. Illnesses that are long-term or lifelong and that develop gradually or are present from birth are known as
    chronic illnesses.
  49. According to Ferdinand Tönnies, Gemeinschaft refers to
    a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability.
  50. The United States has a larger homeless population today than in earlier times because of
    changes in structural factors in society.
  51. What is Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence?
    Organic solidarity
  52. The "old boy network" is an example of
    a social network.
  53. A group of people who live in a specified geographic area are referred to as
    a population.
  54. The actual level of childbearing of an individual or a population is referred to as
    fertility.
  55. The number of people living in a specific geographic area (for example, people per square mile) is
    density.
  56. According to urban sociologists, a city is
    a relatively dense and permanent settlement of people.
  57. The subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and economic structures in the city is
    urban sociology.
  58. The study of the relationship between people and their physical environment is known as
    human ecology.
  59. In Herbert Gans' typology of urban dwellers, those who live in tightly knit neighborhoods that resemble small towns are
    ethnic villagers.
  60. What is the term that sociologists use for the situation where the number of low-income neighborhood residents increases and they begin to spill over into adjacent middle-class neighborhoods, which causes the middle class to move out, thus expanding the base or sector of low-income housing?
    The invasion-succession cycle
  61. A continuous concentration of two or more cities and their suburbs that have grown until they form an interconnected urban area is a
    megalopolis.
  62. What is the term used to describe the situation where banks have policies of refusing to make loans for housing and businesses to persons residing in low-income or blighted communities?
    Redlining
  63. A group to which a person does NOT belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility is
    an out-group.
  64. A reference group is a group
    that strongly influences a person' s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
  65. Which of the following concepts is illustrated by the fact that a successful college president need not be effective in designing the college's promotional brochures and a successful corporate executive need not be able to program the department's computer system?
    Division of labor
  66. Systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to social norms are referred to as mechanisms of
    social control.
  67. According to Robert Merton's strain theory, what occurs when people accept society's goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them?
    Innovation
  68. The statement "The greater the degree of social harm, the more the offender should be punished" reflects the principle of
    retribution.
  69. An organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action is
    a social movement.
  70. Movements seeking to bring about a total change in society are referred to as
    revolutionary.
  71. People who are satisfied with their present condition are LESS likely to seek social change, according to the theory of
    relative deprivation.
  72. Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and that typically violates dominant group norms and values is
    collective behavior.
  73. A relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity is termed a
    crowd.
  74. The situation in which a teenage boy receives advice from his older sister about how to act on a first date is an example of
    socialization.
  75. What is Charles Horton Cooley's term for the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others?
    The "looking-glass" self
  76. According to sociologists, what account(s) for virtually all patterns of human behavior?
    Culture
  77. Traditions, beliefs, language and philosophies are all examples of
    nonmaterial culture
  78. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    language precedes thought.
  79. Any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance is a
    stigma.
  80. Which of the following is an ascribed status?
    Female. Ascribed statuses are attributes that are conferred at birth.
  81. The scholar Auguste Comte
    is considered to be the founder of sociology.
  82. According to sociologist C. Wright Mills, the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society is referred to as
    the sociological imagination.
  83. The first U.S. departments of sociology were established at
    University of Chicago and Atlanta University.
  84. George Herbert Mead is one of the founders of the
    symbolic interaction perspective.
  85. Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois?
    He founded the first college for white women in the United States.
  86. The news is filled with reports of the civil war between the Shiite Muslims and Sunni Muslims in Iraq. Both groups are Muslims, yet they are in great conflict. What is the sociological explanation for their enmity?
    They are both gemeinschaft societies and thus have a very strong internal sense of group identity that makes them intolerant of others.
  87. New York State formally recognized the Poospatuck tribe (Unkechaug Indian Nation) in the 18th century. Today, the tribe numbers approximately 450 people, of whom about 250 live on the Poospatuck Reservation. They are trying to regain their cultural heritage. How would a sociologist explain their mission?
    The tribe is trying to regain its mechanical solidarity, whereby people play similar roles.
  88. Any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another is a
    variable.
  89. If depression is assumed to be caused by loss of employment, then depression is treated here as
    the dependent variable.
  90. The research method in which the goal is scientific objectivity and the focus is on numerical data is known as
    quantitative analysis.
  91. In order for societies to produce social change and a better society, Karl Marx believed which of the following was necessary?
    Class conflict
  92. The role of a health club or golf club as a meeting ground for people seeking new business contacts is an example of
    a latent function.
  93. Sociologists have found that rural residents under age 65 are less likely than urban residents in the same age group to have private health insurance coverage. Which is the most likely explanation for this social pattern?
    The unique characteristics of rural areas make it difficult to institute and maintain workable private insurance pools.
  94. Which sociological perspective would study how educational institutions help to maintain the privilege of some groups, while keeping others in a lower position?
    Conflict perspective
  95. Which is true of gemeinschaft communities?
    Social interaction is valued for its own sake.

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Intro Soc 1
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2017-01-28 09:12:18
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Intro Soc 1
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