Intro Soc 2

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  1. Which of the following is defined as a relationship in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group?
    Family
  2. Which of the following statements about modern U.S. family life is true?
    Sexual activity is more satisfying to people who are in sustained relationships such as marriage.
  3. The family that an individual forms by having or adopting children is a/an
    family of procreation.
  4. Conflict explanations of family problems such as high rates of divorce and overall family instability focus on
    how exploitation of the lower classes by the upper classes contributes to family problems.
  5. The extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the environment is
    primary sector production.
  6. Which of the following is an example of a shared monopoly in the United States?
    Automobile manufacturers. A shared monopoly exists when four or fewer companies supply 50 percent or more of a particular market. An example is the U.S. automobile market, which is dominated by three companies: Daimler-Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.
  7. The situation in which members of the board of directors of one corporation also sit on the boards of other corporations is known as
    interlocking corporate directorates.
  8. Which of the following terms is defined as part-time work, temporary work, or subcontracted work that offers advantages to employers but can be detrimental to the welfare of workers?
    Contingent work
  9. The political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals is
    the state.
  10. What is the term that sociologists use to describe the situation where charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority?
    Routinization of charisma
  11. When cities developed circa 3500–3000 B.C.E., political power became centralized in
    the city-state.
  12. Which of the following types of government requires that citizens be able to meet together regularly to debate and decide the issues of the day?
    Direct participatory democracy
  13. Which manifest function of education is illustrated by the fact that, at a very young age, children learn the appropriate attitudes and behavior for the student role?
    Socialization
  14. What term do sociologists use to refer to social assets that include values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture?
    Cultural capital
  15. Which of the following educational funding systems allows students and their families to spend a specified sum of government money to purchase education at the school of their choice?
    Voucher system
  16. Which of the following terms is defined as the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines, and regulations of schools?
    Hidden curriculum
  17. When groups act out their religious beliefs in the form of symbolic actions that represent religious meanings, the symbolic actions are referred to as
    rituals.
  18. Which social thinker referred to religion as "the opium of the masses"?
    Karl Marx
  19. The type of health-care system in which all citizens receive medical services paid for by tax revenues is
    universal health care.
  20. The set of patterned expectations that defines the norms and values appropriate for individuals who are sick and for those who interact with them is called
    the sick role.
  21. What is the term that Max Weber used to describe the extent to which persons within a particular layer of stratification have access to important scarce resources?
    Life chances
  22. According to the functionalist perspective, graduates of the most elite colleges and universities attain high positions because
    they are the most qualified.
  23. In the United States, the belief that people who work hard and play by the rules will be rewarded with success is known as
    the "American Dream."
  24. The conflict approach to measuring class
    identifies ownership of the means of production as the distinguishing feature of classes.
  25. A hierarchy in which persons are placed in occupational positions according to their ability and credentials is
    a meritocracy.
  26. People who are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation are members of the
    underclass.
  27. Sociologist Max Weber did NOT view the concept of social class as a specific social category of "real people," but as a/an
    ideal type.
  28. How do the views of Max Weber and Karl Marx differ concerning the concept of social class?
    Weber added to Marx's insights by developing a multidimensional explanation of the class structure and identifying additional classes.
  29. Which of the following statements about the unequal distribution of income and wealth in the United States is TRUE?
    The wealthiest 20 percent of households receive almost 50 percent of the total income "pie."
  30. The situation in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty is referred to as
    the feminization of poverty.
  31. All of the following are reasons why social inequality may increase in the United States in the twenty-first century, EXCEPT
    people living in poverty are effectively demanding a larger share of the U.S. budget.
  32. Even when people of color achieve high incomes and prestigious careers, their life chances are often diminished by
    racism.
  33. The economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers, and ownership of property is
    income.
  34. Which of the following refers to a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job?
    Job deskilling
  35. Which characteristic of professionals is demonstrated when they go beyond their self-interest or personal comfort in order to help a patient or client?
    Altruism
  36. Working-class occupations that are relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women are referred to as
    pink-collar occupations.
  37. The shift from manufacturing to service occupations in the U.S. economy has contributed to
    the loss of higher-paying positions.
  38. Sociologists define race as a category of people who
    have been singled out as inferior or superior on the basis of physical characteristics.
  39. How would functionalists classify a baseball umpire who dislikes African-Americans but is scrupulous about making correct calls when African-Americans are at bat?
    A prejudiced nondiscriminator
  40. The extermination of 6 million European Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II is best described by which of the following terms?
    Genocide
  41. Sociologists who argue that class is more important than race in explaining relationships between the members of different races suggest that
    African-Americans have been adversely affected by the changing U. S. economy.
  42. Which of the following terms is defined as the attitudes, behaviors, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process?
    Gender role
  43. Sociologists point out that gender-appropriate behavior is
    learned through the socialization process.
  44. Which of the following concepts is illustrated in a negative sense by a factory that pays male assembly-line workers a higher hourly rate than women employees who do the same work?
    Pay equity or comparable worth
  45. Which theoretical perspective is illustrated by the view that women's roles as nurturers and caregivers ensure that important societal tasks will be fulfilled and family members' needs provided for?
    Functionalist perspective
  46. Prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age is
    ageism.
  47. All of the following statements regarding elder abuse are true EXCEPT
    dependency of older persons on their children often leads to elder abuse.
  48. In which type of family structure is authority held by the eldest female (usually the mother)?
    Matriarchal
  49. In preindustrial societies, adolescents are usually viewed as
    adults.
  50. Emile Durkheim believed that people in preindustrial societies feel a more or less automatic sense of belonging, a condition he referred to as
    mechanical solidarity.
  51. Ferdinand Tönnies' concept ofGesellschaft refers to
    a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values.
  52. In Gesellschaft societies, a prevailing core value is that people
    should be able to take care of themselves.
  53. Which of the following concepts is illustrated by the situation in which a local church is destroyed by fire and the congregation members still worship together in a makeshift setting?
    Social solidarity
  54. The specialty area of sociology that studies human population characteristics and changes is
    demography.
  55. The number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year is the
    crude death rate.
  56. All of the following are push factors that affect migration, EXCEPT
    employment opportunities. (Push factors encourage people to leave one area and move to another area.)
  57. Thomas Malthus stated that the human population, if left unchecked, would exceed the
    available food supply.
  58. All of the following are factors that limited the size of preindustrial cities EXCEPT
    lack of a sense of community.
  59. Which of the following is the process by which members of the middle and upper middle classes, especially whites, move into the central city area and renovate existing properties?
    Gentrification
  60. Which of the following terms describes the situation in which the number of births plus immigrants is equal to the number of deaths plus emigrants?
    Zero population growth
  61. New urban fringes that have arisen beyond central cities and suburbs are referred to as
    edge cities.
  62. Which of the following terms is defined as one or more central cities and their surrounding suburbs that dominate the economic and cultural life of a region?
    Metropolis
  63. All of the following are examples of light industry found in postindustrial cities, EXCEPT
    automobile manufacturing. (Light industry dominates postindustrial cities, unlike the factory-based manufacturing typical of industrial cities.)
  64. A collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence is a/an
    social group.
  65. Sociologists point out that in-group and out-group distinctions
    may encourage social cohesion among group members.
  66. For a person who strongly believes in the value of human rights and equal opportunity, which of the following would NOT constitute a reference group?
    Ku Klux Klan
  67. All of the following statements regarding deviance are true, EXCEPT
    definitions of deviance are similar from place to place, from time to time, and from group to group.
  68. Strain theorists suggest that deviant behavior is caused by
    lack of access to legitimate means to achieve acceptable goals.
  69. Which of the following types of deviance is illustrated by a situation in which a person who smokes marijuana is labeled as a "stoner," and then accepts this label and socializes only with others who use marijuana on a regular basis?
    Secondary deviance
  70. Information provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one is
    propaganda.
  71. Cultural lag occurs when
    the nonmaterial culture has not caught up with material development.
  72. A shift in population distribution from central cities to suburban areas in the United States has resulted in all of the following, EXCEPT
    greater racial integration of schools.
  73. Grassroots environmental movements are types of
    reform movements.
  74. Which approach to social movements assumes that a collective definition of appropriate and inappropriate behavior emerges during episodes of collective behavior?
    Emergent norm theory
  75. The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society is
    socialization.
  76. Which of the following concepts was used by Charles Horton Cooley to indicate that the self is a product of social interactions with other people?
    "Looking-glass" self
  77. Persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self are referred to by sociologists as
    significant others.
  78. It has been said that some Native North American languages have over 20 words to describe snow, which is an illustration of
    the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
  79. The standards by which people define what is right and wrong, good and bad, desirable and undesirable are called
    values.
  80. Which of the following terms refers to the ways in which an individual shows an awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention?
    Civil inattention
  81. What is Erving Goffman's term for the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation?
    Dramaturgical analysis
  82. The process by which perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that is given to an experience is called
    the social construction of reality.
  83. Which British sociologist is credited with coining the phrase "survival of the fittest"?
    Herbert Spencer
  84. French sociologist Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry is known as
    positivism.
  85. Which of the following sociologists identified ideal-type characteristics of bureaucracy?
    Max Weber
  86. Sociologist Jane Addams was active in poor urban areas as a leader of community centers referred to as
    settlement houses.
  87. Sociologist Emile Durkheim is noted for his study of
    suicide.
  88. All of the following statements about qualitative research are true, EXCEPT
    researchers typically utilize complex statistical techniques.
  89. Which of the following terms refers to the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is intended to measure?
    Valid
  90. A printed research instrument containing a series of items to which subjects respond is called
    a questionnaire.
  91. Which of the following terms is illustrated by a situation in which researchers studying the political party preferences of New Mexico residents draw up a list of 3,000 New Mexico residents who are statistically found to be typical of the state's population?
    Representative sample
  92. In a scientific experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the independent variable is known as the
    control group.
  93. The conflict perspective is based primarily on the ideas of
    Karl Marx.
  94. Latent functions of institutions are
    unconscious or unintended.
  95. Which sociological perspective would argue that professional football exists because it satisfies the needs of players, owners, and an audience?
    Functionalist perspective
  96. Which of the following terms is defined as a set of logically interrelated statements that attempt to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predict social events?
    Theory
  97. Conflict theorists and functional theorists primarily utilize which of the following levels of analysis?
    Macro-level analysis

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Intro Soc 2
Updated:
2017-01-28 11:06:55
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Intro Soc 2
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