This covers key concepts and key words from chapter 2
Articles of Confederation:
America's first written constitution; served as the basis for America's national government until 1789
A system of government in which states reain sovereign authority except for he powers expressly delegated to the national government.
A framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, which called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state.
New Jersey Plan:
A framework for the Constitution, introduced by William Paterson, which called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population.
The agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population.
having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses.
The agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person.
Checks and Balances:
mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches. Major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments.
The presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president.
Bill of Rights:
The first ten amendments to teh U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people
Separation of Powers:
The division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making.
A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments.
Specific powers granted by the constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution(also known as the necessary and proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry them out.
The power of the courts to review and, if necessary, declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison.
Article VI of the Constitution, which states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision.
Those who favored a strong national government and supported the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government and who were opponents of the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787.
A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay supporting the ratification of the Constitution.
Oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority.
A government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.