GMan - Chapter Eight
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Number of genes in the minimum compliment of genes
Created the first synthetic life form (2010)
Name of the first synthetic lifeform
How was the first synthetic lifeform created?
- The genome was prepared using a DNA synthesizer
- The genome was inserted into an existing bacterium
- The genome was selected for
What was inserted into the artificial genome?
- Code table for the alphabet (incl punctuation)
- Names of the 46 scientists involved
- Three quotes
- A web address
The DNA synthesizer created the artificial genome _______
80 bases at a time
What does the minimum compliment of genes have to do with LUCA?
The minimum compliment of genes is shared by all life, suggesting we all come from a common ancestor
Why is extra (more than the minimum compliment) DNA needed?
Current Prokaryote groups
Old name for Bacteria and Archaea
Similarities between Bacteria and Archaea
Why are Archaea associated with Eukaryotes?
Similar transcription, translation and RNA processing
Why are mutation in rRNA important?
They helped determine when Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya split
Number of Genes in a bacteria?
Why are short genomes favored in microorganisms?
Faster replication allows greater access to resources
Do prokaryotes have Mitochondria?
Do Prokaryotes have ribosomes?
Key features of Prokaryote replication
- Binary fission
- Short replication times
Key energy intake mechanisms
- Organotrophic - Eating organic molecules
- Lithotrophic - Eating inorganic nutrients
Three factors influencing genetic diversity
- Rapid reproduction
Prokaryote genome structure
- Nucleoid region
How is supercoiling achieved without histones?
Prokaryote DNA is twisted with additional turns in the helix (greater helical pitch)
Enzymes involved in DNA supercoiling
- DNA Gyrase
- DNA Topoisomerase
How is e.coli DNA organized
- 50 100kb loop domains
- Held in place by scaffold proteins
e.coli histone homolog
properties of e.coli HU protein(s)
- 10kDa in size
- Tetrameric (bound by 60bp of DNA)
- Only interacrs with 20% of genome
Are all Prokaryote genomes the same/similar?
Vibrio cholera genome organization
Multipartite - Two large circular chromosomes
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme's disease) genome organization
- Six circular chromosomes
- Five are small, with one large, linear one
- Fertility - Promotes conjugation
- Killer - Toxin production
- Degradative - Degradative enzymes
- Virulence - Pathogenicity
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