GMan - Chapter Eight

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  1. Number of genes in the minimum compliment of genes
    ~540
  2. Craig Venter
    Created the first synthetic life form (2010)
  3. Name of the first synthetic lifeform
    Mycobacterium laboratorium
  4. How was the first synthetic lifeform created?
    • The genome was prepared using a DNA synthesizer
    • The genome was inserted into an existing bacterium
    • The genome was selected for
  5. What was inserted into the artificial genome?
    • Code table for the alphabet (incl punctuation)
    • Names of the 46 scientists involved
    • Three quotes
    • A web address
  6. The DNA synthesizer created the artificial genome _______
    80 bases at a time
  7. What does the minimum compliment of genes have to do with LUCA?
    The minimum compliment of genes is shared by all life, suggesting we all come from a common ancestor
  8. Why is extra (more than the minimum compliment) DNA needed?
    Environmental adaptations
  9. Current Prokaryote groups
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
  10. Old name for Bacteria and Archaea
    Monera
  11. Similarities between Bacteria and Archaea
    • Size
    • Structure
    • et al
  12. Why are Archaea associated with Eukaryotes?
    Similar transcription, translation and RNA processing
  13. Why are mutation in rRNA important?
    They helped determine when Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya split
  14. Number of Genes in a bacteria?
    1000-6000
  15. Why are short genomes favored in microorganisms?
    Faster replication allows greater access to resources
  16. Do prokaryotes have Mitochondria?
    No
  17. Do Prokaryotes have ribosomes?
    Yes
  18. Key features of Prokaryote replication
    • Binary fission
    • Short replication times
    • Endospores
  19. Key energy intake mechanisms
    • Organotrophic - Eating organic molecules
    • Phototrophic
    • Lithotrophic - Eating inorganic nutrients
  20. Three factors influencing genetic diversity
    • Rapid reproduction
    • Mutation
    • Recombination
  21. Prokaryote genome structure
    • Single
    • Circular
    • Supercoiled
    • Nucleoid region
  22. How is supercoiling achieved without histones?
    Prokaryote DNA is twisted with additional turns in the helix (greater helical pitch)
  23. Enzymes involved in DNA supercoiling
    • DNA Gyrase
    • DNA Topoisomerase
  24. How is e.coli DNA organized
    • 50 100kb loop domains
    • Held in place by scaffold proteins
  25. e.coli histone homolog
    HU
  26. properties of e.coli HU protein(s)
    • 10kDa in size
    • Tetrameric (bound by 60bp of DNA)
    • Only interacrs with 20% of genome
  27. Are all Prokaryote genomes the same/similar?
    No
  28. Vibrio cholera genome organization
    Multipartite - Two large circular chromosomes
  29. Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme's disease) genome organization
    • Six circular chromosomes
    • Five are small, with one large, linear one
  30. Plasmid classifications
    • Resistance
    • Fertility - Promotes conjugation
    • Killer - Toxin production
    • Degradative - Degradative enzymes
    • Virulence - Pathogenicity

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GMan - Chapter Eight
Updated:
2017-02-15 20:58:08
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