Lab values #1

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  1. Whats involved with a BMP
    • Basic Metabolic panel
    • Blood test which measures blood sugar, electrolyte and fluid balance, and kidney function
    • Includes:
    • BUN
    • Calcium
    • Bicarb (carbon dioxide)
    • Chloride
    • Creatinine
    • Glucose 
    • Potassium
    • Sodium
  2. BUN
    • Blood urea nitrogen - measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. 
    • reveals important info about how well your kidneys and liver are working.

    Done by blood draw
  3. BUN value range
    10 - 20 mg/dL
  4. Sx of low BUN
    • Jaundice
    • N/V
    • muscle aches
    • pain
    • diarrhea
  5. Sx of high BUN
    • high bp
    • fatigue
    • fluid retention
    • insomnia
    • fog brain
    • itchy, dry skin
    • bone pain/fractures
  6. How is liver involved with BUN?
    • Liver produces ammonia - which contains nitrogen - after it breaks down proteins used by the body's cells
    • Nitrogen combines with other elements, such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, to form urea which is a waste product
    • Urea travels from liver to kidneys
  7. How is kidneys involved with BUN?
    • Healthy kidneys filter urea and remove other waste products from blood
    • Urea travels from liver to kidneys in bloodstream
  8. Creatinine
    • Is a chemical waste that is generated from muscle metabolism
    • Is transported through bloodstream to kidneys, which filter out most of creatinine and dispose of it.
    • Ordered to assess kidney function, done by blood draw
  9. Creatinine values
    0.5 - 1.5 mg/dL
  10. Sx of high creatinine
    • feeling dehydrated
    • fatigue
    • edema
    • SOB
    • confusion
    • N/V

    *couldn't really find low sx's
  11. Potassium
    • Mineral the body needs to work properly
    • Type of electrolyte
    • Helps nerves to function and muscles to contract
    • Helps heartbeat to stay regular
    • Also helps nutrients move into cells and waste products out of cells
  12. Potassium value
    3.5 - 5 mEq/L
  13. How and Why would potassium be ordered
    • Is included in BMP or electrolyte panel
    • May be done for:
    • kidney disease
    • sx such as muscle weakness or irregular heartbeat
    • heart meds (diuretics)
    • Hypertension
  14. symptoms of low potassium
    • constipation
    • palpitations
    • fatigue
    • muscle damage
    • muscle weakness or spasms
    • tingling or numbness
    • flattened T waves
  15. symptoms of high potassium
    • irritability
    • fatigue
    • numbness/tingling
    • N/V
    • problems breathing
    • chest pain
    • palpitations
    • peaked T waves, widened QRS, depressed ST
  16. Sodium -  values
    • Is essential nutrient - helps keep water and electrolyte balance
    • 135-145
    • done by blood draw
  17. sx of low sodium
    • weakness/fatigue
    • headache
    • n/v
    • muscle cramps
    • confusion
    • irritability
  18. sx of high sodium
    • may not have any sx unless levels are significantly elevated.
    • Dizziness when standing up or changing positions
  19. calcium
    • has many jobs in the body
    • body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system
  20. Calcium levels
    9-11 mg/dL
  21. Sx of high calcium
    • excessive thirst and urination
    • n/v
    • constipation
    • abd pain
    • muscle twitching/weakness
    • bone pain
    • memory loss, irritabilty
  22. sx of low calcium
    • tingling
    • muscles aches
    • spasms in throat leading to difficulty breathing
    • tetany (stiffening of muscles)
    • seizures
    • abnormal heart rate
  23. Magnesium
    • Half of body's mag is found in bone, other half inside cells 
    • Needed for nearly all chemical processes
    • Helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps bones strong
    • Needed for heart to function and regulate BP
    • Also helps control blood sugar and support immune system
  24. How and why to test magnesium
    • Find cause for nerve and muscle problems, such as twitching or weakness
    • Find cause for low BP, N/V, diarrhea, dizziness, slurred speak, 
    • test kidney function

    Blood draw
  25. Magnesium normal lab values
    1.7 - 2.2 mg/dL
  26. Sx of low mag
    • Tics, muscle spasms and cramps
    • seizures
    • anxiety
    • irregular heart rhythms
  27. Sx of high magnesium
    • N/V
    • lethargy
    • muscle weakness
  28. Chloride
    • Electrolyte that helps keep proper fluid and acid-base balance
    • Often part of CMP or BMP
  29. chloride normal lab values
    95 - 105 mEq/L
  30. Why and how is chloride tested
    • Can be used to test blood for alkalosis or acidoses
    • Can be used to monitor:
    • high BP
    • heart failure
    • kidney disease
    • liver disease
  31. Sx of low chloride
    • Most don't notice sx unless values are very low
    • muscle twitching or spasm
    • breathing prob
    • weakness
    • confusion
  32. Sx of high chloride
    • Causes bay include loss of body fluids from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, sweating or high fever (dehydration)
    • Sx:
    • high blood sugar
    • excessive fluid loss & dehyration
    • dyspnea
    • intense thirst
    • weakness
  33. Phosphate
    • Builds and repairs bones and teeth, helps nerves function, and makes muscles contract
    • Kidneys help control amount of phosphate in blood. 
    • Amount of phosphate in blood affects level of calcium in blood, as they react in opposite ways. When calcium rises, phosphate falls. 
    • regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  34. Phosphate normal lab values
    • varies with age
    • For adults, generally 2.5 - 4.5 mg/dL
  35. How and why phosphate is tested
    • Blood test
    • checked if :
    • you have kidney disease or bone disease
    • Prob's with certain glands, such as parathyroid glands
    • To find a reason of abnormal Vit D levels
  36. Sx of low phosphate
    • Sx only occur when levels become very low:
    • muscle weakness followed by stupor, coma and death
    • Mild chronic hypophosphatemia bones can weaken, resulting in bone pain and fractures
  37. Sx of high phosphate
    • Commonly caused by inability of kidneys to excrete
    • Other electrolyte values likely to be affected, depending on disease
    • No sx, pt may not know levels are high
  38. acidosis vs alkalosis
    • Acidosis, or acidic,  is 0 - 7.35
    • A is the first letter in the alphabet, left side of scale

    • Alkalosis, or Base, is 7.45 - 14
    • B is right side of scale.
  39. how is pH tested?
    • Blood test 
    • ABG's
  40. sx of low pH
    • Acidosis, occurs when kidneys and lungs can't keep pH in balance
    • Sx include:
    • fatigue
    • confusion
    • SOB
    • sleepiness
    • HA
    • rapid, shallow breathing
  41. sx of high pH
    Alkalosis 

    • Tremor
    • muscle twitching, spasm
    • numbness
  42. Digoxin
    • Heart medication
    • treats heart failure and heart rhythm problems
  43. How is digoxin tested and why?
    • done by blood draw
    • Done to monitor the concentration of the med in the blood.
    • Drug has a narrow safe range.
  44. Digoxin levels
    • Normal range is 0.5 - 2 ng/dL
    • Toxic is >2 ng/dL
  45. Low digoxin levels s/s
    s/s of persistent heart failure: SOB, changes in heartbeat fatigue, fluid buildup in lungs
  46. High, or toxic, digoxin level s/s
    YELLOW-tinted vision, N/V, dizziness, confusion, irregular pulse
  47. Antidote for Digoxin
    • Digibind (Digoxin Immune Fab)
    • Binds to and inactivates Digoxin
  48. Lithium
    Treats manic episodes of bipolar disorder
  49. Why and how to test for lithium
    • Done by blood draw
    • Need to monitor serum level
  50. Lithium levels
    • normal 0.6-1.2 mEq/L
    • toxic>1.5
    • lethal>3.4
  51. s/s of low lithium levels
    • Return of s/s of manic episodes
    • increased sodium intake will increase renal excretion of med.
  52. s/s of high lithium levels
    • diarrhea
    • vomiting
    • slurred speech
    • drowsiness
    • muscle twitching/weakness .
    • Can happen with low sodium levels.
  53. Treatment for high lithium levels
    • No antidote, hold med
    • correct water and sodium deficits
    • avoid drugs that impair lithium clearance

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Author:
jskunz
ID:
328096
Filename:
Lab values #1
Updated:
2017-02-10 23:49:31
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Labs
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Lab values `
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