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The three parts of the Basic Speech Chain?
Speaker -- transmission -- listener
The five parts of the Anatomical Speech Chain
- Brain/Nervous System
- Respiratory System
- Phonation System
- Articulation System
- Auditory System
The six parts of the "physiological/Speech Process" Speech Chain?
(Listener) Speech Perception/Reception
(Speaker) Intended message, Motor Control, Muscle Contraction, Articulation Movement
What is a Speech Chain?
a chart that conceptualizes the path of human communication
Our favorite Speech Chain.
- 1. The Lungs and Ribcage provide the energy Source for Speech.
- 2. The energy is converted into sound at the larynx.
- 3. The sound from the larynx is modified into speech sounds by the oral structures: tongue, lips, teeth, oral and nasal cavities, soft palette, etc.
What are examples of events at different levels of the speech chain influencing what occurs at another level?
- 1. breathing problems can lead to voice problems.
- 2. hearing loss, that effects hearing speech correctly, may cause problems producing speech correctly.
If we Develop a "speech chain mentality" when considering communication and communication disorders we can -- ?
Problem solve to determine at what level(s) of the speech chain is/are interfering with the communication process.
In the human body there are a number of _________ that combine to form ___________ ?
Five examples of tissue are:
- Nervous Tissue (neurons)
- Muscular tissue
4 types of tissue that are pertinent to Speech and hearing anatomy are:
- 1. Cartilage that make up the larynx.
- 2. Bone and cartilage that make up the rib cage (respiration).
- 3. The bone of the skull (and jaw bone).
- 4. Nerve tissue that provide for sensory input and motor output to the muscles.
What we think of as a "muscle" is actually composed of a number of substructures:
- Muscle is made of fiber bundles that run the length of the muscle.
- Fiber bundles are made of fibers, each fiber is made up of a myofibril structure;
- And each myofibril is made up of filaments (that give the muscle the striped appearance).
- ---- muscle, fiber bundles, myofibril structures, filaments ----
Only one kind of muscle is striped; what are all three kinds of muscle?
- 1. Striated (striped) used for voluntary motor activity.
- 2. Smooth muscle used for involuntary activity.
- 3. And Cardiac muscles that are involved in the processes of the heart.
Five examples of tissue are:
Tissue structures pertinent to Speech Anatomy are:
- larynx - cartilage
- bone - skull/jaw
- rib cage - bone and cartilage
- nervous system - nervous tissue sensory input/motor out put
- muscles of inhalation and exhalation
6 things to know about muscles:
- 1. Muscles only pull
- 2. Muscles can pull on a structure which pushes another
- 3. Unless diverted they always pull in a straight line
- 4. It can be diverted by a structure that acts as a pulley
- 5. every force in one direction there is an opposing force in the opp. dir.
- 6. To determine: what pulls or has been diverted to create an action
Muscles are made of substructures, they are:
- fiber bundles
- each fiber is made of myofibrils
- and each myofibril is made of filaments (striped)
The Respiratory System is made of two basic parts:
- A: the lungs
- B: the thorax
What component of the Respiratory System brings air into the lungs?
The Trachea (windpipe)
The Trachea is composed of what two materials?
- C shaped cartilage and
- a fibrous tissue on the posterior wall.
- The fibrous tissue is between the rings, as well.
The Esophagus sits ______________ to the trachea?
The trachea subdivisions are of often referred to as the:
Subdivisions of the Trachea:
- Main-stem bronchi
- Secondary bronchi
- Tertiary bronchi
How many lobes are in the right and left lungs?
- The Right Lung has three lobes.
- The Left Lung has two lobes, which is smaller due to the Mediastinum.
The Mediastinum is the space between that lungs that contains the:
- Blood vessels
- Lymph nodes
The Lungs are covered by a thin tissue known as the:
The rib cage (thorax) is lined with a thin tissue known as the:
What is Pleural Linkage?
When the Visceral Pleura and the Parietal Pleura form a suction between the Lungs and the Rib Cage that enables them to function as a unit.
What is another name for the Rib Cage?
What are the three components of the thorax?
What are the 5 landmarks of the sternum?
- 1. Sternal notch
- 2. incline where the clavicle attaches
- 3. Manubrium
- 4. Body
- 5. Xiphoid Process (you can feel this one)
How are the ribs and sternum attached?
What are the 5 parts of the respiratory cage?
- 1. Clavicle (collar bone)
- 2. scapula (shoulder blade)
- 3. sternum
- 4. vertebrae
- 5. 10 "attached" ribs
- 6. 2 "floating" ribs
When the ribs elevate they move:
Up and Out
What are the two main ways the Lungs move Up an Out?
- 1. By increasing the size of the thorax cavity in an anterior / posterior direction,
- 2. and some lateral expansion.
What is the primary muscle of inhalation?
The Diaphragm is shaped like a _________________ and is located ___________________?
- A. inverted bowl
- B. Just below the thorax.
The diaphragm is made of __________________, that surrounds a ____________________.
- A. Sheet of muscle
- B. Central tendon (diaphragmatic aponeurosis)
What is the tissue called to which muscles attach?
The diaphragm attaches to the what part of the thorax?
The diaphragm separates the:
thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity
What are the three openings in the diaphragm?
- 1. foramen vena cava
- 2. esophageal hiatus
- 3. aortic hiatus
The action of the diaphragm during respiration is:
- inspiration: the diaphragm contracts, going down, causing the thoracic cavity to increase its size;
- expiration: the diaphragm relaxes, decreasing the size of the thoracic cavity.
Inhalation is an ___________________ process; the diaphragm _________________.
Exhalation is a _________________ process; the diaphragm ___________________ to a ___________________ position.
Two ways to increase the thoracic cavity:
- 1. Elevate the rib cage, anterior - posterior and lateral expansion
- 2. Contract (lower) the diaphragm - superior - inferior expansion
The primary muscle for inhalation is the:
What are the 2nd most powerful inhalation muscles?
- The External intercostals
- "costal" means referring to the ribs
How are the External intercostals attached to the ribs?
They go from the lower border of the one rib to the upper boarder of the next.
How do the External intercostals work?
They act as one huge sheet of muscle to elevate the Rib Cage.
What are muscles called that "may" lead to rib cage elevation?
Accessory muscles of the inhalation process
What are the accessory muscles in the lower-middle back?
Accessory muscle of inhalation that lead to rib cage elevation: mastoid process of the skull; the clavicle, and the sternum is the:
What two muscles are primarily concerned with the inhalation process?
- External intercostals
What is Clavicular Breathing?
Accessory muscles being used as the primary source of power to elevate the rib cage.
Why is Clavicular breathing not efficient?
Because Accessory muscles only increase the size of the thoracic cavity a small amount.
During Exhalation we:(3 steps)
- decrease the size of the thoracic cavity, which
- decreases the size of the lungs, which
- forces air out of the lungs.
Two way to accomplish exhalation:
- 1. lower the rib cage: decrease anterior - posterior and lateral dimensions of the thoracic cavity.
- 2. Elevate the diaphragm, decreasing the size of the TC in a superior/inferior direction.
Expiration muscles are those whose actions lead to:
lowering of the rib cage, or elevation of the diaphragm.
Inhalation is a _______________ process?
Exhalation is a _____________ process, or a ____________ process?
passive (gravity) or active (muscles).
Whether passive or active, elevation of the diaphragm and lowering of the rib cage are:
The diaphragm cannot, by itself, elevate actively. It has to be the result of:
A natural recoil of compressing viscera below the diaphragm.
The main muscle of Accessory muscle of exhalation:
internal intercostals (like a large sheet of muscle).
Internal intercostals are used for the _____________ process; and External intercostals are used for the _______________ process.
Accessory muscle of Exhalation, pulling the rib cage downward, that are located on the inside of the thorax are called the:
Transverse thoracis muscles
The transverse thoracis attaches:
from the lower part of the inside of the sternum to the lower portion of ribs 2 - 6.
Accessory muscle of Exhalation, pulling the rib cage downward, that are on the inside wall of the thorax, posteriorly from near the attachment of the ribs and vertebrae and fan up to the rib above (sometime two) are the:
Other than pulling down on the rib cage, we can cause exhalation by ________________, thus ____________________.
- compressing the abdominal contents
- forcing the diaphragm to elevate
Exhalation muscles compressing the viscera that runs from the pelvis to the sternum?
What is the Rectus abdominus surrounded by?
A sheath known as the abdominal aponeurosis.
Exhalation Muscles that lower the rib cage, thus compress the viscera that arises from the lowest 8 ribs, attaches to the abdominal aponeurosis and attaches to the hip and pelvis are the
External Oblique muscles
The internal oblique muscles are located beneath the ______ and the fibers run at _______ to to those of ________.
- external oblique
- right angles
- external obliques
Accessory muscle of Exhalation, pulling the rib cage downward compressing the viscera that come around from the vertebrae in back to the abdominal aponeurosis, the lower part of the ribs and pelvis are the
The transversus abdominus provide a "_______________" compression of the abdomen.
Most accessory exhalation muscles are used primarily for the movement of the _______ and the _______.
How does breathing for life differ from breathing for speech?
Tidal or quiet tidal breathing for life -- the ratio of inhalation/exhalation differs considerably.
In tidal breathing the inhalatory phase has a:
- shorter duration than the exhalatory phase
- -- about 40% of the respiratory cycle is inspiration, and 60% is expiratory.
How much air does an adult male exchange in one tidal breath?
About 500 milliliters (1/2 liter) of air per breath.
How many breaths do we typically take per minute?
12-18 tidal breaths
REMEMBER: During TIDAL BREATHING the diaphragm (and perhaps the external intercostal muscles) are:
active during inhalation, and there is essentially no muscular activity during exhalation.
For SPEECH BREATHING how do we exchange air?
- We inhale air rapidly and exhale it gradually.
- Inhalation takes up about 10% of a respiratory cycle during speech, while exhalation takes up about 90% of the cycle.
Rapid inhalation and prolonged exhalation during SPEECH is known as:
a breath group.
How much more air is used for speech than for life?
about twice as much.
The duration of a breath group is:
dependent upon what we say.
We define a breath group as:
The number of syllables uttered on one breath.
For an utterance:
we take in sufficient air, unconsciously.
On a breath group graph the longer the utterance:
- The taller and wider the graphic will be along the axis:
- almost straight up, then down at a near 45% degree angle.
The total amount of air that we can hold in our lungs is called:
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Because of _________ ________ we cannot totally exhale all the air from our lungs.
The amount of air left in our lungs after a full exhalation is called:
We subtract _________ from our TLC to figure our ________?
- Residual Volume
- Vital Capacity
We typically talk about speech breathing in terms of:
The amount of air we inhale and exhale during quiet tidal breathing is called:
The amount of air inhaled and exhaled during tidal breathing (tidal volume) can vary depending . . .
upon our level of activity
When does the Rest Respiratory Level (Resting lung volume or Rest Level) take place during tidal quiet breathing?
At the end of an exhalation and before the beginning of an inhalation.
At the resting Respiratory level, the respiratory system is at __________________, i.e., __________________.
- -- no muscular activity is taking place -- and the lung pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
Lung volume between males and females usually starts at:
What part of Lung Volume increases over the entire lifespan?
Our respiratory system becomes __________________ as we age.
What is air pressure that results from nonmuscular forces in the respiratory system:
How is relaxation pressure illustrated?
The Relaxation Pressure Curve.
What are the axes of a relaxation pressure curve graft?
- Lung Pressure, aka alveolar pressure or subglottal pressure, left and right,
- AND Lung Volume, expressed as a percent of vital lung capacity, up and down.
- (memory tip: "turning the volume up and down")
Rest Volume on the RPC graph equals __________ in the center of the alveolar pressure axis?
Zero (0 vital capacity meets -60 at the corner)
RPC at 0/-40 we have:
a low relaxation pressure.
RPC at 100/40 (top of "S"):
high amounts of relaxation pressure
At any lung volume there will be:
a certain amount of air pressure (subglottal pressure).
Subglottal pressure results from:
having any amount of air in the lungs.
When we SPEAK, We want a relatively constant _________ subglottal pressure.
Subglottal air pressure is constantly:
When the Relaxation Pressure available is unequal to the subglottal pressure we must:
use our respiratory muscles to either CHECK or AUGMENT the relaxation pressure.
During Speech, we use our respiratory system to ___________ for the __________.
- maintain the appropriate subglottal pressure
- speaking activity in which we are engaged
We constantly use our respiratory muscles to ___________ or ___________ so that we will have the ___________.
- check relaxation pressure
- augment relaxation pressure
- appropriate subglottal pressure
The demands of speech breathing are ______________ and ______________ than the demands of life breathing.
- much greater
- involve a much greater degree of control
Individual who cannot use their respiratory systems appropriately will have:
- difficulty speaking appropriately
- -- problems with the voice, particularly vocal loudness, and may have problems with vocal quality. Their prosody may also be affected.
Correct pronunciation of words; observance of the rules of pronunciation. A suprasegmental phonological feature such as intonation, stress, etc.
suprasegmental /0su:prəsɛgˈmɛnt(ə)l, sju:-/ adjective & noun.
Linguistics. (Designating) a feature or features of a sound or sequences of sounds other than those constituting the consonantal and vocalic segments, as stress and intonation in English.