Chapter 3 Key Terms

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  1. Polymer
    A long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks
  2. Monomer
    The repeating units that serve as building blocks of polymers
  3. Enzymes
    Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions such as those that make or break down polymers
  4. Dehydration Reaction (2)
    • Reaction that occurs when two monomers are disassembled, resulting in the consumption of a water molecule
    • Building of polymers
  5. Hydrolysis (2)
    • A reaction that occurs when two monomers are disassembled, resulting in the consumption of a water molecule
    • Breaking apart polymers
  6. Carbohydrates
    Include sugar monomers and polymers of sugars
  7. Monosaccharides (3)
    • Simple sugars, sugar monomers
    • Classified by the location of the carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the carbon skeleton
    • Major fuel for cells and as raw materials for building molecules
  8. Polysaccharides (2)
    • Carbohydrate macromolecules 
    • Polymers of sugars and have both energy storage nad structural roles in biology
    • Function determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of its glycosidic linkages
  9. Disaccharides
    Formed through a dehydration reaction that joins two monosaccharides
  10. Starch
    A storage polysaccharide of plants consists entirely of glucose monomer
  11. Glycogen (3)
    • Multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, and fungi
    • Primarily stored in liver and muscles
    • Main form of glucose storage in the body
  12. Gene Expression
    Directed synthesis of mRNAs followed by protein synthesis from the mRNA
  13. Gene Expression
    • Each gene along a DNA molecule directs synthesis of an mRNA
    • Flow of Genetic Information: DNA->RNA->Protein
  14. Nucleotide
    The building block of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
  15. 3 Components of Nucleotides
    • Nitrogenous base
    • A pentose (5-Carbon) sugar
    • One or more phosphate groups
  16. Nucleoside
    The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate
  17. Two families of Nitrogenous Bases
    • Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine, uracil
    • Purines: adenine, guanine
  18. Deoxyribose
    Sugar found in DNA
  19. Ribose
    Sugar found in RNA
  20. Double Helix
    DNA molecules have two polynucleotide strands spiraling around an imaginary axis
  21. Complementary Base Pairing
    • Adenine(A) pairs with thymine(T); or uracil (U)
    • Guanine (G) always pairs with cytosine (C)
  22. Amino acids (2)
    • Organic molecules with amino and carboxyl groups
    • Differ in their properties due to differing side chains (R groups)
  23. Peptide Bonds
    Covalent bonds that link Amino Acids
  24. Polypeptide (4)
    • Polymer of amino acids
    • Range from a few amino acids to more than a thousand
    • Each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence with a carboxyl end and an amino end 
    • N-terminus to C-terminus
  25. Lipids (4)
    • One clss of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers
    • Mix poorly, if at all, with water (hydrophobic)
    • Consist mostly of hydrocarbons (C & H)
    • Important: fats, phospholipids, and steroids
  26. Fats
    Constructed from two types of smaller molecules (glycerol and fatty acids)
  27. Triacylglycerol
    3 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol by ester linkage
  28. Glycerol
    A three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon
  29. Fatty acid
    Consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton
  30. Saturated fatty acids (2)
    • Have max number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds
    • Solid at room temperature
  31. Unsaturated fatty acids (3)
    • Have one or more double bonds
    • Liquid at room temperature
    • Plant fats and fish fats
  32. Steroids
    Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
  33. Cholesterol (3)
    • A type of steroid
    • Component in animal cell membranes and a precursor from which other steroids are synthesized
    • High levels may contribute to cardiovascular disease
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Chapter 3 Key Terms
2017-02-13 07:20:20
chapter3 keyterms biology
key terms from chapter 3
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