Anatomy Chapter 4

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  1. What is a group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure?
    tissue
  2. what are the four major categories of tissue and their functions?
    • epithelial tissue- covering
    • Connective tissue-support
    • Muscle tissue- movement
    • Nervous tissue- control
  3. To perform specific functions, the tissues are organized into ____ such as the stomach, heart, kidneys and lungs.
    organs
  4. What is the name of the  tissues that covers the external body surface (epidermis), lines its cavities and tubules, and generally "marks the inside from the outsides".
    Epithelial/ epithelium
  5. What is also developed from epithelial membranes and classed as epithelium?
    glands
  6. Where does epithelia occur?
    Epithelia occurs at the interfaces between two different enviorments.
  7. What is the function of the epithelium?
    protection, secretion, absorption, filtration, and sensory reception
  8. Cellularity, special contacts, polarity, supported by connective tissue, avascular but innervated and high regenerative capacity are unique characteristics of what tissues:
    epithelial tissues
  9. what is cellularity in a epithelial tissue?
    When a epithelial tissue is composed entirely of cells.
  10. What are special contacts in an epithelial tissue?
    special contact- form continuous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
  11. What is polarity in an epithelial tissue?
    consist of an apical (upper free) and basal (lower attached) surfaces
  12. An epithelial tissue is supported by connective tissue  that consist of :
    a reticular and basal laminae (basement membrane)
  13. An epithelial tissue is avascular but innervated, which means?
    it is without blood cell, gets blood from connective tissue and has nerve endings
  14. An epithelial tissue has high regenerative capacity, which means it:
    rapidly replaces lost cells by cell division.
  15. What are the unique characteristics of epithelial tissues?
    • cellularity, polarity, special contacts, supported by connective tissue,
    • avascular but innervated, high regenerative capacity
  16. Epithelia is classified  according to which two criterias:
    arrangement and shape
  17. What is a simple and a stratified epithelia?
    • simple epithelia; consist of one layer of cells attached to the basement
    • stratified consist of two or more layers of cells
  18. In an epithelia there are  three shapes a cell can take on, what are they?
    squamous, cuboidal, and columnar.
  19. Describe a squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cell.
    • squamous: cell wider than tall (plate-like)
    • cuboidal: cells are as wide as tall (cube-like)
    • Columnar: cells are taller than they are wide (column-like)
  20. Name the epithelia tissue:

    It is actually a simple columnar epithelium, but because it's cells vary in height and the nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane, it gives a false appearance of being stratified. Often ciliated
    pseudostratified epithelium?
  21. Describe a transitional epithelium
    Stratified squamous epithelium are formed of rounded or plump cells with the ability to slide over one another  to allow the organs to be stretched
  22. Where are transitional epithelium found?
    They are only found in urinary system organs
  23. Describe a single squamous epithelium.
    a single layer of flat cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
  24. What are the functions of a  simpel squamous epithelium?
    passage  of materials by passive diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances in serosa membranes.
  25. What are the special types of  simple squamous epithelium?
    endothelium and mesothelium
  26. What is mesothelium?
    it is the middle covering, lines peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities, and covers visceral organs of the cavities.
  27. What is endothelium?
    It is the inner covering, can be found in the slick lining of hollow organs
  28. Where can you find simple squamous epithelium?
    renal corpuscle, alveoli of lungs, lining of the heart, blood and lymphatic vessels,and lining of ventral body cavity(serosa)
  29. Describe the simple cuboidal epithelia.
    its a single layer of cube-like cells with large, spherical central nuclei
  30. What are the functions of simple cuboidal epithelia?
    secretion and absorption
  31. Where can simple cuboidal epithelia be found?
    Kidney tubules, secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface
  32. Name the following Epithelia.
    Single layer of column-shaped (rectangular) cells with oval nuclei; some bear cilia at their apical surface and may contain goblet(mucus secreting) cells
    Simple Columnar Epithelia
  33. What are the functions of a simple columnar epithelia.
    Absorption; secretion of mucus, ion transport, ciliated type propels mucus to reproductive cells by ciliary action
  34. Where can a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelia be found?
    It lines the digestic tract, gallbladder and ducts of some glands
  35. Where can a ciliated simple columnar epithelia be found
    lines the bronchi, fallopian tubes, and the uterus.
  36. Name the following Epithelia.
    All cells originate at basement membrane; only tall cells reach the apical surface; may contain goblet cells and bear cilia; nuclei lie at varying height within cells (gives impression of stratification)
    Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia
  37. What are the functions of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia?
    secretion of mucus; propulsion of mucus by cilia
  38. Where can a non-ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia?
    in ducts of male reproductive tubes and ducts of large glands
  39. Where can a ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia?
    lines trachea and most of upper respiratory tract
  40. Name the following epithelia:
    Has many layers of cells; superficial layers are squamous in shape while deeper layers of cells appear cuboidal or columnar; thickest epithelial tissue; adapter for protection
    Stratified Squamous epithelium
  41. What are the functions of a stratified squamous epithelium?
    protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasions
  42. Where are keratinized forms of stratified squamous epithelium located?
    epidermis
  43. Where are non-keratinized forms of stratified squamous epithelium located?
    lining of esophagus, mouth, and vagina
  44. Describe a stratified cuboidal epithelium.
    Generally two layers of cube-shaped cells
  45. What are the functions of stratified cuboidal epithelium?
    protection
  46. Where are stratified cuboidal epithelium located?
    It forms largest ducts of sweat glands and forms ducts of mammary glands and salivary glands
  47. Describe a stratified columnar epithelium.
    several layers of basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated
  48. What are the functions of  a stratified columnar epithelium.
    protection and secretion
  49. Where can a stratified columnar epithelium be found?
    It is the rarest  tissue type, found in male urethra and large ducts of some glands.
  50. Name the epithelium;

    The basal cell usually is cuboidal or columnar; the superficial cells are domes shaped or squamous; undergoes transition in shape.
    Transitional Epithelium
  51. What are the functions of a transitional epithelium?
    Stretches and permits distension of urinary bladder causing thinning (from 6 to 3 layers when filled with urine)
  52. Where can you find transitional epithelium?
    Lines ureters, urinary bladder and part of urethra
  53. Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product form what?
    glands
  54. The product of a gland are _____ _____ that usually contain proteins.
    aqueous fluid
  55. Epithelial cells forming glands are highly specialized  to remove material from _____ and to manufacture them into new materials which they secrete. (recall ER)
    the blood
  56. Glands are classified by:
    • 1. site of release; endocrine (internally releasing) vs exocrine (externally realesing)
    • 2. the relative number of cells forming the gland
  57. These glands lose their surface connection (duct) as they develop and are referred to as "ductless gland". They also secrete hormones directly into the blood or the lymphatic vessels that weave through the glands to specific target organs far from the site of release.
    endocrine glands
  58. These glands retain their ducts, and their secretions empty through there ducts to an epithelial surface. (internal and external). These glands are a diverse group of glands and are found in different areas.
    exocrine glands
  59. Unicellular glands are found where?
    they are scattered within the epithelial sheets
  60. Describe a multicellular gland.
    They are formed by invagination or evaginations and usually have ducts (tube-like connections to epithelial sheets) that carry products to exocrine glands to epithelial surface
  61. Name a type of unicellular exocrine gland:
    the goblet cell
  62. Name the following type of gland.

    It is scattered throughout epithelial lining of intestines and respiratory tubes, between columnar cells.
    unicellular exocrine glands (the goblet cell)
  63. Which gland produces mucin, a glycoprotein that dissolves in water to become slimy; covers, protects and lubricates many internal body surfaces?
    Goblet cell
  64. which glands  have two basic parts; secretory units and epithelium-walled ducts- thye are also classified by structure of duct- either simple (unbranched) or compound (branched). They are categorized by secretory unit structures; tubular (secretory cells that form tubes), alveolar-acinar-(secretory cells that form small flask-like sacs), and tubuloalveolar (secretory cells that form tubular and alveolar units)
    multicellular exocrine glands
  65. What three factors act to bind epithelial cells to one another:
    • 1. Adhesion proteins in the plasma membranes link together adjacent cells
    • 2. The wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent  cells (tongue and groove)
    • 3. special cell junctions
  66. Name the type of cell junctions:

    A belt-like junction that extends around a periphery (apical region), closes off extracellular space, and some proteins in plasma membrane of adjacent cells are fused. This prevents molecules from  passing between cells of epithelial tissue.
    tight junctions (zonula occludens)
  67. Name the type of cell junctions:

    An anchoring junction  just  below tight junctions. Transmembrane linker proteins attach to  actin microfilaments of the cytoskeleton and bind adjacent cells. Together with tight junctions,  these form the tight junctional complex around apical lateral borders of epithelial tissues.
    Adherens junctions (zonula ahderens)
  68. Name the type of cell junctions:
    The main junctions for binding cells together, two disc-like plaques connected across intercellular space. Plaque of adjoining cells are joined by proteins called cadherins, proteins interdigitate into extracellular space and intermediate filaments insert into plaques from the cytoplasmic side.
    Desosomes (anchoring junctions)
  69. Name the type of cell junctions:

    A Tunnel-like passageway between two adjacent cells that can occur anywhere, allows small molecules move directly between neighboring cells. The cells are connected by hollow cylinders of proteins (connexons)
    Gap junction (nexus)
  70. This is the border between the epithelia and the ndelying C.T. This thin, noncellular sheet consist of proteins secreted by the epithelial cells.
    Basal Lamina
  71. What are the functions of the basal lamina?
    It acts as a selective filter, determining which molecules from capillaries enter the epithelium. Also acts as scaffolding along which regenerating epithelial cells can migrate.
  72. The basal lamina and reticular layers of the underlying connective tissue deep to it form  what?
    the basement membrane
  73. Clinical application:
    In untreated  cases of diabetes mellitus, the basement membrane associated with endothelium of capillaries thicken over time, probably because that take up glucose which is present in very high concentration.
    Thickening is specially evident in capillaries of kidneys and the retina of the eyes, making them nonfunctional. This is why kidney failure and blindness are major symptoms of diabetes.
  74. What has finger-like extensions of plasma membrane, maximizes surface area across which small molecules enter or leave and is abundant in epithelia of small intestine and kidneys.
    microvilli
  75. What has a whip-like, highly motile extension of apical surface membranes.
    cilia
  76. What is a set of microtubules that contains a core of nine pairs of microtubules encircling one middle pair; each pair of microtubules arranged in a doublet.
    axoneme
  77. Describe the movement of a cilia.
    in coordinated waves
  78. Describe a flagellum.
    extremely long cilia used to propel cells/ organisms
  79. What is an example of a flagellum?
    sperm cell
  80. Describe the movement of a flagellum.
    whiplike pattern
  81. What is a connective tissue?
    it is found in all parts of the body as a discrete structure or as part of various body organs.
  82. Functions of a connective tissue.
    protects, support (catilage and bone) and bind together (tendons and ligaments) other tissues of the body.
  83. Example of connective tissues are?
    • 1.osseous tissue
    • 2.areolar connective tissue
    • 3.adipose (fat) tissue
    • 4.hemtopoietic tissue
  84. Describe osseous tissue
    connective tissue of the bone
  85. Describe areolar connective tissue
    soft packaging material that cushions and protects body organs
  86. Describe adipose (fat) tissue
    provides insulation of the body tissues and as source of stored food
  87. Describe hematopoietic tissue
    replenishes the body's supply of red blood cells
  88. What are the four main types of connective tissue?
    • 1. connective tissue proper
    • 2. catilage
    • 3. bone tissue
    • 4. blood
  89. What are the characteristic of connective tissue?
    • 1. All C.T. originates from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme
    • 2. they have a rich supply of blood vessels
    • 3. C.T. are composed of many cell types
    • 4. In between the cells of C.T. are a vast amount of noncellular (non-living material), called extracellular matrix
  90. All types of C.T. orginate form the embryonic tissue called.
    mesenchyme
  91. What is the function of extracellular matrix in C.T.?
    the extracellular matrix distinguishes connective tissue from all other tissues. The matrix is produced by the cells and then extruded, and it accounts for the strength of C.T.
  92. What are the two structural components of the matrix?
    • 1. ground substance
    • 2. fibers
  93. Describe ground substance:
    the ground substance functions as a medium through which nutrients and other dissolved substances can diffuse between the blood capillaries and cells. It holds the interstitial fluid.
  94. Describe fibers:
    The fiber provide support. For example; collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers
  95. What are all fibers made from?
    A single cell called fibroblast
  96. The prototypic connective tissue is;
    areolar connective tissue
  97. Which tissue underlies almost all the epithelia of the body and surrounds almost all the small nerves and blood vessels?
    Areolar connective tissue
  98. What are the basic functions of areolar connective tissue?
    • 1. Support and binding of other tissues (happens in the matrix)
    • 2. Holding body fluid (happens in the matrix)
    • 3. Defending the body against infection (happens in the cell)
    • 4. Storing nutrients as fat (happens in the cell)
  99. Describe a collagen fiber.
    strongest and most abundant type, it allows connective tissue to  withstand tension  and the cross-linking of collagen fibers give collagen its strength
  100. What gives bundles of special type of collagen, clusters into networks (reticulum) that cover and support all structures bordering the C.T. When pulled these fibers glide freely past one another and "allow more give" thus capillaries are not choked by the surrounding these fiber when they expand.
    Reticular Fibers
  101. Describe an elastic fiber;
    long and thin; form wide networks within the ECM. They are made up of collagen but also contain elastin, which allows them to function like rubber bands (they recoil back)
  102. Name the part of the extracellular matrix that holds the tissue fluid (derived form the blood). Consist of large sugar (glycosaminoglycans) and sugar-protein molecules (proteoglycans) that soak up fluid like a sponge.   Functions as a medium through which nutrients, wastes and other dissolved substances can diffuse between the blood capillaries and cells.
    Ground substances
  103. What does ground substance holds?
    Fluids
  104. As a defense cell, how does areolar C.T. work?
    it is  the site of the body's war against infectious microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites
  105. As a defense cell what does areolar C.T. contain?
    It contains a variety of defense cells, all of which originate as blood cells and migrate to the connective tissue by leaving the capillaries
  106. Within the areolar C.T., which following cells work to defend the body:
    • 1. Macrophages
    • 2. Plasma cells
    • 3. Mast cells
    • 4. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils
  107. Which C.T. also stores (nutrients) energy reserved as fat. The larger, fat storing cells are called fat cells (adipose or adipocytes). The cytoplasm  of adipocytes is dominated by a single, giant lipid droplet that flattens the nucleus and cytoplasm at one end of the cell.
    areolar C.T.
  108. What are the subclasses of connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue and dense (fibrous) connective tissue
  109. Loose connective tissue consist of more cells & less matrix, also consist of which other C.T.
    • Areolar C.T.
    • Adipose C.T. 
    • Reticular C.T.
  110. Dense (fibrous) connective tissue consist of less cells & more matrix, also consist of which other C.T.
    • 1. regular C.T. (tendon)
    • 2. irregular C.T
    • 3. elastic C.T. (aorta)
  111. Which C.T. proper does Areolar C.T. belong to?
    Loose Connective Tissue
  112. Which C.T. proper does Adipose C.T. belong to?
    Loose Connective Tissue
  113. Which C.T. proper does Reticular C.T. belong to?
    Loose Connective Tissue
  114. Which connective tissue does its mass consist of 90% fat cells. It is highly vascularized, removes lipids from  the bloodstream after meals and later releases them into the blood as needed. Occurs in the hypodermis and the mesentries.
    Adipose Connective tissue
  115. Which connective tissue resembles areolar tissue, but the only fibers present in the matrix are reticular fibers which hold many free cells. Can be found in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes (all have many free blood cells outside the capillaries).
    Reticular connective tissue
  116. This C.T. resembles areolar tissue, but the collagen fiber are much thicker. Collagen fibers run in different planes, allowig this C.T. to resist tension from different directions.
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  117. This connective tissue contains colllagen fibers  that run in the same direction... parellel to the direction of pull. Crowded between the  fibers are rows of fibroblasts, which continously produce the collagen fibers and scant ground substances. Unlike areolar it is poorly vascularized, has no fat or defense cells.
    Dense regular connective tissue
  118. Can be found in few ligaments, bundles of elastic fibers outnumber the collagen fibers. For example the ligamentum flavum. Which connective tissue it this?
    Dense (regular) elastic connective tissue
  119. Describe cartilage.
    a firm connective tissue that resist compression (pressing) as well as tension.
  120. Describe the matrix.
    thin collagen, ground substance, lots of tissue fluid
  121. How much water does cartilage contain?
    cartilage consist of 80% water
  122. A firm, flexible tissue that contains no blood vessels or nerves and just one kind of cell called a chondrocyte (contained within a cavity called a lacuna).
    cartilage
  123. Immature chondrocytes are called _____, which secrete the matrix during cartilage growth.
    Chondroblasts
  124. What are the three types of cartilages.
    • 1. hyaline catilage
    • 2. fibrocartilage
    • 3. elastic cartilage
  125. Which cartilage is this: consists of amorphous bu firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacuna.
    hyaline catilage
  126. What are the functions of hyaline cartilage?
    support and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties and resists compressive stress
  127. The matrix of this cartilage consist of a glassy apperance.
    hyaline cartilage
  128. Which cartilage is this: 
    Matrix is similar to but less  firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate.
    Fibrocartilage
  129. This cartilage resist tensile forces and has a more visible thicker collagen.
    Fibrocartilage
  130. Functions of fibrocatilage.
    has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
  131. Which cartilage is this:
     Is similar to hyaline cartilage but more elastic fiber in the matrix.
    Elastic cartilage
  132. Functions of elastic cartilage
    maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
  133. Which elastic snaps back to shape (recoil)?
    Elastic cartilage
  134. Location of elastic cartilage.
    supports the external ear; epiglottis
  135. Location of fibrocartilage.
    intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joints
  136. This C.T. has a hard, calcified matrix, contains many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae, and is very well vascularized.
    Bone (osseous) tissue
  137. What are osteoblasts?
    secrete collagen fibers and matrix... in an immature stage
  138. What is an Osteocyte?
    mature bone cells in lacunae
  139. Which C.T do these functions associate with; support and protects organs, provides levers and attachments site for muscles, stores calcium, fat, and minerals. Marrow inside bones is the site for blood cells formation  (hematopoiesis)
    Bone (osseous) tissue
  140. This C.T. is the fluid in the blood vessel,it is themost atypical C.T., does not bind things together or give mechanical support
    Blood tissue
  141. Why is blood classified as C.T.?
    Blood is a connective tissue because it develops from mesenchyne and consist of blood cells surrounded by nonliving matrix (plasma)
  142. Blood functions as a transport vehicle for the _____ _____, carrying nutrients, waste, respiratory gases, and other substances throughout the body.
    Cardiovascular system
  143. Describe Blood.
    red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
  144. What is the function of blood?
    Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances
  145. These membranes are a combination of epithelial and connective tissues. They cover a broad area within the body and consist of an epithelial sheet plus the undelaying layer of the connective tissue proper. What are they?
    • 1. cutaneous
    • 2. mucous
    • 3. serous membranes
  146. The_____ _____ is the skin covering the outer surface of the body. the epithelium and the connective tissue proper.
    cutaneous membrane
  147. What is an epithelium?
    the thick epidermis
  148. What is the connective tissue proper?
    the dense dermis
  149. The _____ ______ lines the inside of every hollow internal organ that opens outside the body.
    mucous membrane
  150. What membrane lines the tubes of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive,a nd urinary system.
    Mucous membrane
  151. Lines the inside of every hollow internal organ that opens outside the body. Lines the tubes of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary system. All are wet and moist, but not all secrete mucus. All consist of an epithelial sheet directly above a layer of loose connective tissue called lamina propia.
    Mucous membrane (mucosa)
  152. Mucous membrane consist of an epithelial sheet directly above a layer of loose connective tissue called?
    lamina propia
  153. The _____ _____ are the slippery membranes that line the closed pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. All consist of a layer of simple squamous epithelium lying on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
    serous membrane (serosa)
  154. Brings about most kinds of body movement.
    muscle tissue
  155. Most _____ cells are called muscle fibers because they have an elongated shape and contract forcefully as they shorten.
    muscle
  156. Muscle tissues contain _____ a combination of actin and myosin allows cells to contract
    microfilaments
  157. There are three kinds of muscle tissue, what are they?
    • 1. skeletal
    • 2. cardiac
    • 3. smooth
  158. This muscle pulls on bones to cause body movement. Has long, large cylinders that contain many nuclei. Appear striated due to the organization of myofilaments
    Skeletal muscle
  159. This muscle occurs in the wall of the heart. Contracts to propel blood through the blood vessels, like skeletal muscles it also appears striated. However,  each cell has just one nucleus and cardiac cells branch and joint at special cellular junctions called intercalated discs.
    cardiac muscle
  160. Cardiac cells branch and join at special cellular junctions called;
    intercalated discs
  161. This muscle has no visibel striation in its cells. It  is spindle shaped and contains one centrally located nucleus. It is found in hollow walls of vicera (digestive and urinary organs, uterus and blood vessels) acts to squeeze substances through these organs
    Smooth muscle
  162. Which muscle are walls of most hollow organs?
    smooth muscle
  163. The main component of the nervous organs.... the brain, spinal cord, and nerves which regulate and control body functions. Contains two types of cells... what are they?
    Neurons and supporting cells
  164. These are highly specialized cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses. They have extensions that allow them to transmit impulses over great distances within the body.
    Neurons
  165. These are non-conducting cells that nourish, insulate and protect the delicate neurons.
    Supporting cells

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Anatomy Chapter 4
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2017-02-27 16:13:35
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