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The cells life cycle is a series of changes- from formation until reproduction of itself- interphase is the longer period during which the cell gows and carries out its usual activities and cell division
division of cell division, mitosis is nuclear division.....the product of mitosis is 2 daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to the mother nucleus
division of the cytoplasm which begins after mitosis is nearly complete. If cytokinesis does not occur binucleate or multinucleate cells form, common in the liver
structural and functional unit of all living things, complex entity
3 major regions of the cell
nuleus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm
threadlike genetic material loosely dispersed throughout the nucleus
when the cell is in the process of dividing to form daughter cells, the chromatin coils and condenses- forming dense, darkly staining rodlike bodies
one or more small round bodies, primarily protiens and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
double layered pourous membrane, distinguished by large nuclear pores
seperates cell contents from surrounding environment.
valuable cell proteins and other substances are kept within the cell and excreta or wastes pass to the exerior
fingerlike projections, increase the surface area of the cell available for absorption or passage of materials and for binding molecules.
fluid cytoplasmic material in the cytoplasm where the most cell activities are carried out
metabolic macheinery of the cell, highly organixed to carry out specific functions of the cell...include ribosomes, endoplasmic teticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, cytoskeletal elements and centrioles
densly staining, roughly spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein: actual sites of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
highly folded system of membraneous tublues and cisternae (sacs) that extend through the cytoplasm- provides a system of transport of cellular substances (mainly proteins) from one part of the cell to another
rough ER, smooth ER
- rough ER is studded with ribosomes, its cisternae modify and store newly formed proteins and dispatch them to other areas of the cells
- smooth ER- does not participate in protein synthesis, it is present in cells that produce steroid based hormones, and abundant in cells that are active in lipid methobllism and drug detoxification (ex: liver cells)
stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends generally found close to the nucleus; proteins delivered from rough ER are modified, segregated and packaged in membranous vesicles that 1. incorporated in to the plasma membrane 2. become secretory vesicles that release their contents 3 become lysosomes.
various sized membrane bound sacs containing powerful digestive enzymes
like lysosomes, enzyme containing sacs, they detoxify harmful substances, such as free radicals using oxygen, abundant in kidney and liver cells
rod shaped bodies with a double membrane wall - catalyze the reactions of Krebs cycle (oxidative respiration)- produce energy captured in the bonds of ATP molecules, ready energy to power the cells- powerhouses of the cell
support and move substances within the cell
slender tubules formed of proteins (tubulins organize the cytoskeleton and direct formation of the spindle formed by the centrioles during cell division- also transport substances down the elongated cells, suspend organelles and help maintain cell shape
stable proteinaceous cytoskeletal elements that act as internal guy wires to resist mechanical forces acting on cells
ribbon or cordlike elements formed of contractile proteins, primaily actin- important in cell mobility and contrast
lie close to the nucleus in all animal cells capable of reproducing themselves, rodshaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other- during cell division they direct the formation of the mitotic spindle, also form the cell projections called cilia and flagella.
life cycle stages
first and longest stage of mitosis, formation of chromosomes
brief 2nd stage of mitosis in which chromosomes migrate to the central plane of th spindle and align along the plane in a straight line
3rd stage of mitosis- the enzyme separase cleaves cohesin and centromeres split- moving chromosomes look V-shaped
final phase of mitosis, chromosomal movement stops, prophase in reverse. mitosis ends, briefly has 2 nuclei
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