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11.1 Explain the nature of public speaking and communication apprehension, and identify the suggestion for managing apprehension in public speaking and for overcoming procrastination.
Public speaking - is a form of communication in which a speaker addresses a relatively large audience with a relatively continuous discourse usually in a face-to-face situation.
Benefits and Skills od Public Speaking
Public speaking draws together a wide variety of social, academic, and career skills.
People experience communication apprehension in all types of situations (as illustrated throughout the test), but it is in the public speaking situation that apprehension is the most common and the most severe.
At the most obvious level, starting early provides you with the most time needed to process the information you`re going to talk about to get used to the idea of preparing for the presentation of your speech.
Step 1: Select Your Topic, Purposes, and Thesis.
11.2 Describe How public speaking topics, purposes, and these can be selected and limited.
The first step in preparing an effective public speech is to select the topic on which you`ll speak, the general and specific purposes you hope to achieve, and your thesis or central idea.
Select a worthwhile topic that will be interesting to the audience.
In some case you`ll select your topic and purpose almost simultaneously.
Your General Purpose
The two general purposes (major aims or objectives) of public speeches are to inform and to persuade. The informative speech creates understanding; it clarifies, enlightens, corrects misunderstandings, demonstrates how something works, or explains how something is structured. The persuasive speech, on the other hand, influences attitudes or behaviors.
YOUR SPECIFIC PURPOSE
Your specific purpose identifies the information you want to communicate (in an informative speech) or the attitude or behavior you want to change (in a persuasive speech).
The Thesis is the main idea that will be conveyed ton an audience.
Step 2: Analyze Your Audience.
11.3 Explain the sociological and psychological characteristics of an audience and how these might be used in audience analysis and adaptation.
At one time, the audience for a public speech was limited to the people who were actually at the speaking event.
When analyzing an audience, be careful not to assume that people covered by the same label are necessarily all alike.
Focus your psychological analysis of the audience on the questions.
Analysis and adaptation during the speech
In your classroom, you`ll face a known audience you`ve already analyzed and for which you`ve appropriate adaptations.
Step 3: Research Your Topic
11.4 Identify the basic principles of and sources for researching your speech topic and the criteria for evaluating research and for integrating and citing research.
Research is the systematic search for information; it`s an investigation of the relevant information on a topic.
- Here are a few principles to help you research your speeches more effectively and more effectively.
- . Begin your search by examining what you already know.
- . Continue your search by getting a general overview of the topic.
- . Follow up the general overview with more detailed sources.
- . Gather a variety of different types of research.
- Here a few types of sources to investigate.
- . News sources
- . Biographical material
- . Academic research articles
- Distinguish between primary and secondary sources as you research.
All research materials must be evaluated.
Research Integration and Citation
By integrating and acknowledging your sources of information in your speech, you`ll give fair credit to those whose ideas and statements you`re using; and, at the same time, you`ll help establish your own reputation as a responsible researcher.