Lecture: Chemicals and Compounds

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VASUpharm14
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Lecture: Chemicals and Compounds
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2010-09-05 18:16:43
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IBHS for Munson
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  1. Three most abundant elements in body. (out of 13 most abundant)
    • Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen
    • (or go with CHO!)
    • cho chang, harry potter, nothing? fine.
  2. 3 examples of trace elements (14 elements total in body)
    • sulfur, chlorine, iodine.
    • in SMALL amounts.
  3. Context: Subatomic particles
    Protons (P+)
    variations?
    • positive charge (p.p. hee hee)
    • variations change the element
    • (# protons = atomic number and the periodic table shows each element with a different atomic number).
  4. Context: subatomic particles
    neutrons (n)
    variations?
    • neutral (n.n)
    • variations change the isotope
    • (nice ice. n (neutrons) and i (isotope)). yea that's the best I can come up with.
  5. context: subatomic particles
    elections (e-)
    variations?
    • negative charge
    • variations change the ion

  6. QUESTION (class example):
    context: isotope, ion, or element?
    1 P+ and 0 e-
    catION
  7. QUESTION (class example):
    context: isotope, ion, or element?
    1 P+ and 2 N and 1 e-
    • Isotope
    • --> Nice Ice(otope)
  8. QUESTION (class example):
    context: isotope, ion, or element?
    1 P+ and 1 e-
    • element
    • P+ = e-
    • and no changing neutrons
    • note: neutrons only in elements after hydrogen
    • ex above was hydrogen.
  9. context: chemical BONDS
    How many chemical bonds exist for this lecture?
    What are they?
    • 4
    • Bond = 4 letters.
    • Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen, Van der Waals
    • (VICH as in "VICH" bond is which)
  10. Context: interaction between atoms
    mickey mouse bond (water) is what type of bond
    with what strength?
    hint: unequal sharing of electrons
    polar covalent bond

    Bond Strength: 50-200 kcal/mol
  11. Context: interaction between atoms
    if you aren't a mickey mouse bond, nor an uneven covalent bond
    hint: equal sharing of electrons
    Nonpolar covalent bond

    Bond Strength: 50-200 kcal/mol (notice this is same as polar)
  12. Context: interaction between atoms
    Bonding that doesn't share electrons
    hint: no sharing of electrons
    • Ionic bonds
    • ex: NaCl
    • (most likely metal/transition metal + nonmetal)
    • Bond Strength: 20 kcal/mol (idea: this is weak compared to covalent bonds)
  13. Context: interaction between molecules
    weak forces between O and H
    Hydrogen bond

    Bond Strength: 1-2 kcal/mol
  14. Context: interaction between molecules
    weak forces. a little positive and a little negative from bumping and grinding...
    just kidding about grinding.
    Van der Waals

    Bond Strength: 1 kcal/mol
  15. Context: Basic energy concepts
    potential energy
    • stored energy (can use to do work)
    • ex:ATP, fat, glycogen, glucose, covalent bonds
  16. Context: Basic energy concepts
    kinetic energy
    • energy used (to do work)
    • ex: energy RELEASED when breaking covalent bonds
  17. Context: Basic energy concepts
    Endergonic/Endothermic
    net consumption of energy. cool to the touch
  18. Context: Basic energy concepts
    exergonic/exothermic
    net release of energy. heat produced
  19. context: types of chemical rxns
    catabolism
    • decomposition
    • AB --> A + B
    • ex: hydrolysis - break down of water (hydro , lysis)
    • exergonic = break bond to RELEASE energy
  20. context: types of chemical rxns
    anabolism
    • synthesis
    • A + B --> AB
    • ex: dehydration
    • endergonic
    • (SAD - synthesis, anabolic, dehydration)
  21. context: types of chemical rxns
    exchange reactions
    • AB + CD = AD + BC
    • exchanging partners like a hoe-down show down.
  22. context: types of chemical rxns
    reversible reactions
    • A+ B --> AB
    • AB --> A + B
    • synthesis and decomposition can occur. not permanent.
  23. QUESTION (class example):
    Choose one for:
    Catabolic reaction.
    1)Typically uses heat
    2) is common for a dehydration reaction
    3) Is the same thing as a synthesis reaction
    4) Is often exergonic
    5) Is also known as an exchange reaction
    answer: is #4
  24. Inorganic compounds
    • Doesn't have the C AND H most of the time.
    • ex: CO2, H2O, O2, acid/bases/salt (abs)
  25. 2 points that Water is useful for
    • 1. Reactivity- ex: dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
    • 2. Lubrication - ex: synovial, pleural, pericardial, serous fluids.
  26. Context: water and its properties
    Heat Capacity
    • -high boiling point
    • -low freezing point
    • -a lot of heat released from liquid to gas
    • -1cal = raise 1 g of 1 degree celcius (111 because water is number 1!)
  27. Context: water and its properties
    polar solvent
    • -solution (smallest solutes)
    • -colloid
    • -suspension (largest solutes)
  28. Hydrophilic
    water lovin' and disorganized partyers
  29. hydrophobic
    • water hating, lipid loving.
    • emo group - likes to hang in micelles.
  30. Electrolyte
    • soluble inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an electrical current in solution
    • ex: NaCl, dec in potassium = paralysis, irregular heartbeats.
  31. What is pH?
    negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration
  32. context: pH
    Neutral
    pH = 7.0
  33. context: pH
    acidic
    < 7.0
  34. context: pH
    basic/alkaline
    > 7.0
  35. role of each:
    Acid + Base --> Salt + H2O
    ? ?
    • acid = proton donator
    • base = proton acceptor

    • weak: partially ionizes
    • strong: fully ionizes
  36. Context: organic compounds
    Carbohydrates
    • C1H2O1
    • ~1% (diet or anabolism)
    • ex: monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose), polysaccharides (cellulose)
    • -immediate use of energy
  37. Context: organic compounds
    lipids
    • C1H2
    • 12-24% (diet or anabolism)
    • ex: fatty acids (-COOH), eicosanoids (ARA- arachadonic acid, prostaglandins (pain), leukotriene (inflammation)), steroids (cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol) glycerides
    • -storage of energy
  38. Context: organic compounds
    Proteins
    • CnHnOnNn
    • 20% (amino acids)
    • ex: glycoproteins, proteoglycans
  39. Context: organic compounds
    Nucleic acids
    • CnHnOnNnPn
    • ex: DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
  40. Context: organic compounds
    High energy compounds
    • CnHnOnNnP3
    • Synthesized.
    • Storage and transfer of energy (7.3 kcal/mol)
    • ex: ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP
  41. QUESTION (class example):
    MATCHING:
    1. Nucleoside a)a single sugar and nitrogen ring structure attached to one or more phosphate
    2. Nucleotide b) an extended sugar phosphate backbone attached to a nitrogen containing compound
    3. Nucleic acid c) can be a purine or pyrimidine
    4. Nitrogenous base d) a single or double ring struture attached to a sugar molecule
    • 1) d
    • 2) a
    • 3) b
    • 4) c
  42. QUESTION (class example):
    Changing pH on protein.
    what happens?
    Changing temperature
    what happens?
    • denature bonds;
    • slower to conformation
  43. Context: types of proteins
    structural proteins
    • ex: collagen
    • (keep us looking smooth)
  44. Context: types of proteins
    contractile proteins
    ex: actin
  45. Context: types of proteins
    transport proteins
    ex: ion channels
  46. Context: types of proteins
    buffering proteins
    ex: hemoglobin
  47. Context: types of proteins
    metabolic proteins
    ex: enzymes
  48. Context: types of proteins
    hormones
    ex: insulin
  49. Context: types of proteins
    defense
    ex: immunoglobulins
  50. context: enzymes
    synthesis process
    • E + S1+S2 --> ES1S2 --> EP => E + P
    • -substrates bind to enzyme. substrates form a product. product leaves enzyme.
  51. context: enzymes
    decomposition process
    E + S --> ES --> EP1P2 ==> E + P1 + P2
  52. Purpose of enzymes
    lower activation energy, makes processes happen faster than normal
  53. context: enzymes
    2 types of inhibition
    competitive and non-competitive (has second site)
  54. context: hybrid molecules
    Proteoglycans are?
    Glycoproteins are?
    • The 2nd part of word is what it is.
    • 1) proteins hanging off of the carbohydrates (it's a carbohydrate).
    • 2) glycogen hanging off of the proteins (it's a protein)
  55. 3 components of Nucleic acids
    • 1. Phosphate
    • 2. Sugar (pentose = 5 carbon sugar)
    • 3. Nitrogenous base
  56. Purines
    • 2 ringed molecules
    • Adenine and guanine
    • Remember: As PURE as Gold (A P G).
  57. Pyrimidines
    • 1 ringed molecules
    • cytosine, uracil, thymine
    • Remember: CUT the Pyrimid. (don't cut the cheese!)
  58. DNA VS RNA
    • 2' C has either hydrogen (DNA) or hydroxide (RNA).
    • RNA = copy machine
    • DNA = library

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