The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
What is regionalization?
brain has many different regions, each region has a specific function
What are the three levels of the brain?
- 1. Brain stem
- 2. Lymbic system
- 3. Cerebral cortex
What is the brain stem responsible for?
Basic survival functions
Maintaining blood pressure, regulating breathing and heart rate are examples of the functions of which level of the brain?
What is the lymbic system responsible for?
Basic mammalian function
Sexual reproduction, regulation of thirst and hunger and sexual attraction are examples of the functions of which level of the brain?
What is the cerebral cortex responsible for?
Advance cognitive processing (higher order mental thought)
Paying attention to the lectures and what you think about are examples of the functions of which level of the brain?
What are the four subcategories of the brain stem?
- 1. cerebellum
- 2. medulla
- 3. Pons
- 4. Reticular formation
What is the job of the cerebellum?
responsible for coordinating muscle movement "motor control"
The left cerebellum controls movement on what side of the body?
The right side
What is the job of the medulla?
blood pressure and respiration
In a drug overdose what is the first thing in your brain stem to shut down?
What is the job of the pons?
- Regulates conscious state
- ex. How alert you are, whether you are awake or sleeping
What is the job of the reticular formation?
Sense of touch
What are the 4 subcategories of the lymbic system?
- 1. Thalamus
- 2. Hypothalamus
- 3. Hippocampus
- 4. Amygdala
What is the job of the thalamus?
Gets info from the reticular formation but also all the other 4 senses too.
The 4 senses go through which part of the lymbic system first before going into the cortex?
What is the job of the hypothalamus?
responsible for sleep regulation, hunger regulation, thirst regulation, sexual behavior
What is the job of the hippocampus?
What is the job of the amygdala?
- Processing emotion and fear
- if removed or damaged emotions are affected
WHat are the 4 subcategories of the cerebral cortex?
- 1. occipital lobe
- 2. temporal lobe
- 3. parital lobe
- 4. frontal lobe
What is the job of the occipital lobe?
only process information and sight
The sight information that goes through the reticular formation then the thalamus goes through which part of the cortex?
What is the job of the temporal lobe?
- responsible for hearing information that comes through the thalamus
- language processing
What is the job of the parietal lobe?
information of sense of touch
How does the parietal lobe get information of sense of touch?
first through the reticular formation, then the thalamus
What is the job of the frontal lobe?
Which part of the cerebral cortex ties all the information together?
What is white matter?
what is grey matter?
made up of cell bodies and dendrites
What is the corpus callosum?
it sends information between the left and right brain
What are ventricles?
provide cushioning for the brain, lacks brain tissue, houses cerebral fluid, little spaces that allow us secondary circulation and lacks brain tissue
What are the two parts of the nervous system?
Central and peripheral
What are the two parts in the central nervous system?
Brian and spinal cord
What are the two parts of the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system responsible for?
muscle movement and touch
Does the somatic nervous system have voluntary or involuntary control?
voluntary because we are able to control it and are consciously aware of it
What are the two parts of the somatic nervous system?
Motor system and perceptual system
Does the autonomic nervous system have voluntary or involuntary control?
involuntary control because we do not control it. it is done subconsciously
What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
what is the sympathetic responsible for?
- fight or flight
- prepares your body for physical activities during stress
- ex. exercise
what are the 2 chemicals that the sympathetic releases?
adrenaline and cortisol
What is the parasympathetic responsible for?
- rest and digest
- opposite of sympathetic
- save energy and relax
What is the job of the neurons? (3 things)
- 1. Communicate and send signals throughout the nervous system
- 2. Changing structure and function
- 3. Form all the brain circuits
What is neuronal communication?
how neurons communicate with each other and pass information to the next neuron
What are the 3 components of a neuron?
1. cell body 2. axon 3. dendrite
What are the four things a cell body has?
membrane, nucleus, cytoplasms and organelles
What are collaterals?
sub branches that come out in the end
What are terminals?
The end point of the collaterals
What are the two types of cells of the nervous system?
neurons and neuroglial cells
What is the job of the neuroglial cells?
Play supporting roles to the nervous system
What are the 2 subtypes of neuroglial cells?
microglial and macroglial
What does the microglial do?
- smallest glial cells
- the brain does not have access to the body’s immune system so these guys clean up the pathogens that get in your brain
What are the 4 different functions of the macroglial?
- 1. Provide some type of nutrient to neurons and other glial cells
- 2. Maintain blood pressure within the brain
- 3. Provide a structure/scaffolding to the rest of the brain
- 4. Form the myelin sheath
How does the macroglial maintain blood pressure within the brain?
Wrap themselves around blood vessel to make it constrict or dilate
How does the macroglial provide structure/scaffolding to the rest of the brain?
Form a weblike structure within the entire brain to form a structure to it, Add some firmness to the brain and rigid webbing
How does the macroglial form the myelin sheath?
wrapping around the axon
What is the myelin sheath?
it servers as electrical conductor and makes the action potential go ten to 100 times quicker than without the myelin sheath
the myelin sheath does not provide what?
Where does the action potential start?
at the base of the axon
what is action potential?
an electrical pulse
What is axon hillock?
beginning point of the action potential between where the axon and cell body meet
What is the action potential process?
Impulse goes down the axon and the electrical impulse gets spread through all of the collaterals until it reaches every terminal
Before it dissipates it triggers a reaction for activity in each of the terminals Neurotransmitter reside in the terminal of neurons, specifically the axons terminals
Like carrier pigeons, because they go and transfer the information to the next neuron Reason they leave is when the action potential reaches them and go to the synapse
Get across and attach to the dendritic terminal of another cell After they pass on the information they either go back to their neuron or disintegrated
What is the synapse?
the gap between neurons
What is external stimuli?
something in our environment that we pick up through one of our senses, goes with our sensory memory
what are the three types of memory?
sensory, short term and long term
Is the sensory memory done subconsciously?
how long does the sensory memory last?
less than 3 seconds
How long does short term memory last?
up to 30 seconds
How many items can be kept in short term?
5 to 9 items
what is chunking?
linking items together to stay in your short term memory
Is the short term memory done subconsciously or consciously?
What is maintenance rehearsal?
keeping things in your short-term memory by repeating
What is elaborative rehearsal?
making the item have meaning to it
what is consolidation?
when information goes to long term
What is the capacity of long-term memory?
unknown but really big
What is the duration of long-term memory?
can last a lifetime
What is retrieval?
to get things back to our short term memory
Is the long-term memory done consciously or subconsciously?
what are the two types of long term memory?
explicit and implicit
what is explicit long-term memory?
information you think of with memories, math figures, facts, math equations, plot of movies, what your birthday is
Memory you can consciously or verbally recall, use words to completely describe this memory.If you can use language to describe it
what is implicit memory?
muscle memory, demonstrating how to walk, HOW TO SUCK DICK, HOW TO GET THE GOOD D IN THE POON
Can subconsciously recall You cannot say how but do it
Sensory memory as well is implicit
What are the two types of amnesia?
retrograde and anterograde
what is retrograde amnesia?
- trouble recalling information that you know or once knew
- Trouble of going back in time like childhood and what you did last week or 5 minutes ago
What is anterograde amnesia?
not being able to form new memories
What are the three aspects found of memory deficits because of patient HM?
- 1. Anterograde amnesia only, but remembered everything up to the surgery so there was no retrograde amnesia
- Were able to test him on his retrograde memory and he could recall old information
- 2.Only within the realm of long term memory, sensory memory and short term memory was still intact
- Tested his other memory and the duration, capacity, able to collect memory from all his senses for sensory
3. Only explicit long term
memories was affected
What is the endogenous cycle?
biological rhythm, pattern that is genetically programmed and cannot be controlled
what are the two types of endogenous cycles?
circannual and circadian
what is circannual cycle?
cycle that happens every year ex. mating, and hibernation
What is circadian rhythm cycle?
- it happens every day and last 24 hours
what is zeitgebers?
- environmental factors that affect the timing of the circadian rhythm
- ex. dieting
what is the scn?
- it is the brain structure that houses our neurons for the circadian rhythms
- suprachiasmatic nucleus
- another name is the "master clock"
what happens to the neurons in the SCN?
- the neurons rise in concentration then state degrading
- like DNA makes proteins and rise then degrade and do it every 24 hrs
- the protein that does it is the CLK protein (clock protein)
What is the effect of night and day do the the SCN?
- When it is day the eyes give the signal to the SCN and gives it inhibition to not activate
- When it is night the eyes give the signal to the SCN to stimulate and get activated. then it sends it's signal to the pineal gland then when it is activated it makes melatonin
what is melatonin?
what is manufactured by the pineal gland and released into the bloodstream by the pineal gland
what is drifting?
when 24 hr CLK, starts and stops and things get pushed later
what is lesion?
damaged or removed tissue
what is Electroencephalogram (EEG)?
- recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
- non-invasive technique
what are the three factors of the brain wave lines?
amplitude, frequency and synchrony
what is amplitude?
the height of the wave form
what is frequency?
measure of how fast it is osculating up or down
what is synchrony?
How much they line up, the more aligned they are the more synchrony
what are the factors of the wave lengths in awake/alert?
low amplitude, low synchrony and high frequency,
beta waves hertz are?
what are the factors of the wave lengths in calm wakefulness?
low amplitude and low synchrony, high frequency
As you go from alert to delta waves what happens to the waves?
amplitude and synchrony increase while frequency decreases
what stage is the deepest sleep?
stage 3 and 4
What is Stage 1 of sleep and what is the percent of sleep in this stage?
- 4-5%- few minutes
- Transition to awake to sleep
What is Stage 2 of sleep and what is the percent of sleep in this stage?
- Official sleep
- Still easily woken
what is stage 3 and 4?
what is stage 5 of sleep?
How long are the cycles of sleep?
90 minute cycles each
what is nrem and what sleep stages are in nrem?
what is the eeg in nrem?
high amplitude, high synchrony and low frequency
what are the physiological behaviors of nrem?
- Low sympathetic response
- High parasympathetic response
- Low overall brain activity
- Low overall metabolism
- Low core body temperature
what is rem and what sleep stage is this in?
rapid eye movement and stage 5
what is the eeg in rem?
low amplitude and low synchrony and high frequency
What are the physiological behaviors of rem?
- High sympathetic response
- Low parasympathetic response
- High overall brain activity
- High metabolism (sometimes greater than awake)
- Deregulation of body temperature control (depends of your environment type)
what is the paradox of rem?
Physiological is like awake like states versus Deep sleep- like states
what are the deep sleep like states of rem?
- Low ability to respond or have reflexes
- atonia - absence of tone (Muscle tone)- deeper muscle relaxation in REM
- Paralysis- you are paralyzed