Brain and Behavior Exam 1

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  1. What is regionalization?
    brain has many different regions, each region has a specific function
  2. What are the three levels of the brain?
    • 1. Brain stem 
    • 2. Lymbic system 
    • 3. Cerebral cortex
  3. What is the brain stem responsible for?
    Basic survival functions
  4. Maintaining blood pressure, regulating breathing and heart rate are examples of the functions of which level of the brain?
    Brain stem
  5. What is the lymbic system responsible for?
    Basic mammalian function
  6. Sexual reproduction, regulation of thirst and hunger and sexual attraction are examples of the functions of which level of the brain?
    Lymbic system
  7. What is the cerebral cortex responsible for?
    Advance cognitive processing (higher order mental thought)
  8. Paying attention to the lectures and what you think about are examples of the functions of which level of the brain?
    Cerebral cortex
  9. What are the four subcategories of the brain stem?
    • 1. cerebellum
    • 2. medulla
    • 3. Pons
    • 4. Reticular formation
  10. What is the job of the cerebellum?
    responsible for coordinating muscle movement "motor control"
  11. The left cerebellum controls movement on what side of the body?
    The right side
  12. What is the job of the medulla?
    blood pressure and respiration
  13. In a drug overdose what is the first thing in your brain stem to shut down?
    the medulla
  14. What is the job of the pons?
    • Regulates conscious state
    • ex. How alert you are, whether you are awake or sleeping
  15. What is the job of the reticular formation?
    Sense of touch
  16. What are the 4 subcategories of the lymbic system?
    • 1. Thalamus
    • 2. Hypothalamus
    • 3. Hippocampus
    • 4. Amygdala
  17. What is the job of the thalamus?
    Gets info from the reticular formation but also all the other 4 senses too.
  18. The 4 senses go through which part of the lymbic system first before going into the cortex?
  19. What is the job of the hypothalamus?
    responsible for sleep regulation, hunger regulation, thirst regulation, sexual behavior
  20. What is the job of the hippocampus?
    Memory processing
  21. What is the job of the amygdala?
    • Processing emotion and fear 
    • if removed or damaged emotions are affected
  22. WHat are the 4 subcategories of the cerebral cortex?
    • 1. occipital lobe
    • 2. temporal lobe
    • 3. parital lobe
    • 4. frontal lobe
  23. What is the job of the occipital lobe?
    only process information and sight
  24. The sight information that goes through the reticular formation then the thalamus goes through which part of the cortex?
    occipital lobe
  25. What is the job of the temporal lobe?
    • responsible for hearing information that comes through the thalamus 
    • language processing
  26. What is the job of the parietal lobe?
    information of sense of touch
  27. How does the parietal lobe get information of sense of touch?
    first through the reticular formation, then the thalamus
  28. What is the job of the frontal lobe?
    making decisions
  29. Which part of the cerebral cortex ties all the information together?
    Frontal lobe
  30. What is white matter?
  31. what is grey matter?
    made up of cell bodies and dendrites
  32. What is the corpus callosum?
    it sends information between the left and right brain
  33. What are ventricles?
    provide cushioning for the brain, lacks brain tissue, houses cerebral fluid, little spaces that allow us secondary circulation and lacks brain tissue
  34. What are the two parts of the nervous system?
    Central and peripheral
  35. What are the two parts in the central nervous system?
    Brian and spinal cord
  36. What are the two parts of the peripheral nervous system?
    Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
  37. What is the somatic nervous system responsible for?
    muscle movement and touch
  38. Does the somatic nervous system have voluntary or involuntary control?
    voluntary because we are able to control it and are consciously aware of it
  39. What are the two parts of the somatic nervous system?
    Motor system and perceptual system
  40. Does the autonomic nervous system have voluntary or involuntary control?
    involuntary control because we do not control it. it is done subconsciously
  41. What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
    sympathetic and parasympathetic
  42. what is the sympathetic responsible for?
    • fight or flight
    • prepares your body for physical activities during stress
    • ex. exercise
  43. what are the 2 chemicals that the sympathetic releases?
    adrenaline and cortisol
  44. What is the parasympathetic responsible for?
    • rest and digest
    • opposite of sympathetic
    • save energy and relax
  45. What is the job of the neurons? (3 things)
    • 1. Communicate and send signals throughout the nervous system
    • 2. Changing structure and function
    • 3. Form all the brain circuits
  46. What is neuronal communication?
    how neurons communicate with each other and pass information to the next neuron
  47. What are the 3 components of a neuron?
    1. cell body 2. axon 3. dendrite
  48. What are the four things a cell body has?
    membrane, nucleus, cytoplasms and organelles
  49. What are collaterals?
    sub branches that come out in the end
  50. What are terminals?
    The end point of the collaterals
  51. What are the two types of cells of the nervous system?
    neurons and neuroglial cells
  52. What is the job of the neuroglial cells?
    Play supporting roles to the nervous system
  53. What are the 2 subtypes of neuroglial cells?
    microglial and macroglial
  54. What does the microglial do?
    • smallest glial cells 
    • the brain does not have access to the body’s immune system so these guys clean up the pathogens that get in your brain
  55. What are the 4 different functions of the macroglial?
    • 1. Provide some type of nutrient to neurons and other glial cells
    • 2. Maintain blood pressure within the brain
    • 3. Provide a structure/scaffolding to the rest of the brain
    • 4. Form the myelin sheath
  56. How does the macroglial maintain blood pressure within the brain?
    Wrap themselves around blood vessel to make it constrict or dilate
  57. How does the macroglial provide structure/scaffolding to the rest of the brain?
    Form a weblike structure within the entire brain to form a structure to it, Add some firmness to the brain and rigid webbing
  58. How does the macroglial form the myelin sheath?
    wrapping around the axon
  59. What is the myelin sheath?
    it servers as electrical conductor and makes the action potential go ten to 100 times quicker than without the myelin sheath
  60. the myelin sheath does not provide what?
  61. Where does the action potential start?
    at the base of the axon
  62. what is action potential?
    an electrical pulse
  63. What is axon hillock?
    beginning point of the action potential between where the axon and cell body meet
  64. What is the action potential process?
    Impulse goes down the axon and the electrical impulse gets spread through all of the collaterals until it reaches every terminal

     Before it dissipates it triggers a reaction for activity in each of the terminals Neurotransmitter reside in the terminal of neurons, specifically the axons terminals

    Like carrier pigeons, because they go and transfer the information to the next neuron Reason they leave is when the action potential reaches them and go to the synapse

    Get across and attach to the dendritic terminal of another cell After they pass on the information they either go back to their neuron or disintegrated
  65. What is the synapse?
    the gap between neurons
  66. What is external stimuli?
    something in our environment that we pick up through one of our senses, goes with our sensory memory
  67. what are the three types of memory?
    sensory, short term and long term
  68. Is the sensory memory done subconsciously?
  69. how long does the sensory memory last?
    less than 3 seconds
  70. How long does short term memory last?
    up to 30 seconds
  71. How many items can be kept in short term?
    5 to 9 items
  72. what is chunking?
    linking items together to stay in your short term memory
  73. Is the short term memory done subconsciously or consciously?
  74. What is maintenance rehearsal?
    keeping things in your short-term memory by repeating
  75. What is elaborative rehearsal?
    making the item have meaning to it
  76. what is consolidation?
    when information goes to long term
  77. What is the capacity of long-term memory?
    unknown but really big
  78. What is the duration of long-term memory?
    can last a lifetime
  79. What is retrieval?
    to get things back to our short term memory
  80. Is the long-term memory done consciously or subconsciously?
  81. what are the two types of long term memory?
    explicit and implicit
  82. what is explicit long-term memory?
    information you think of with memories, math figures, facts, math equations, plot of movies, what your birthday is

    Memory you can consciously  or verbally recall, use words to completely describe this memory.If you can use language to describe it
  83. what is implicit memory?
    muscle memory, demonstrating how to walk, HOW TO SUCK DICK, HOW TO GET THE GOOD D IN THE POON

    Can subconsciously recall You cannot say how but do it

    Sensory memory as well is implicit
  84. What are the two types of amnesia?
    retrograde and anterograde
  85. what is retrograde amnesia?
    • trouble recalling information that you know or once knew
    • Trouble of going back in time like childhood and what you did last week or 5 minutes ago
  86. What is anterograde amnesia?
    not being able to form new memories
  87. What are the three aspects found of memory deficits because of patient HM?
    • 1. Anterograde amnesia only, but remembered everything up to the surgery so there was no retrograde amnesia
    • Were able to test him on his retrograde memory and he could recall old information

    • 2.Only within the realm of long term memory, sensory memory and short term memory was still intact
    • Tested his other memory and the duration, capacity, able to collect memory from all his senses for sensory

    3. Only explicit long term memories was affected
  88. What is the endogenous cycle?
    biological rhythm, pattern that is genetically programmed and cannot be controlled
  89. what are the two types of endogenous cycles?
    circannual and circadian
  90. what is circannual cycle?
    cycle that happens every year ex. mating, and hibernation
  91. What is circadian rhythm cycle?
    • it happens every day and last 24 hours
    • daily
  92. what is zeitgebers?
    • environmental factors that affect the timing of the circadian rhythm 
    • ex. dieting
  93. what is the scn?
    • it is the brain structure that houses our neurons for the circadian rhythms 
    • suprachiasmatic nucleus
    • another name is the "master clock"
  94. what happens to the neurons in the SCN?
    • the neurons rise in concentration then state degrading
    • like DNA makes proteins and rise then degrade and do it every 24 hrs
    • the protein that does it is the CLK protein (clock protein)
  95. What is the effect of night and day do the the SCN?
    • When it is day the eyes give the signal to the SCN and gives it inhibition to not activate
    • When it is night the eyes give the signal to the SCN to stimulate and get activated. then it sends it's signal to the pineal gland then when it is activated it makes melatonin
  96. what is melatonin?
    what is manufactured by the pineal gland and released into the bloodstream by the pineal gland
  97. what is drifting?
    when 24 hr CLK, starts and stops and things get pushed later
  98. what is lesion?
    damaged or removed tissue
  99. what is Electroencephalogram (EEG)?
    • recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
    • non-invasive technique
  100. what are the three factors of the brain wave lines?
    amplitude, frequency and synchrony
  101. what is amplitude?
    the height of the wave form
  102. what is frequency?
    measure of how fast it is osculating up or down
  103. what is synchrony?
    How much they line up, the more aligned they are the more synchrony
  104. what are the factors of the wave lengths in awake/alert?
    low amplitude, low synchrony and high frequency,
  105. beta waves hertz are?
    14-30 hz
  106. what are the factors of the wave lengths in calm wakefulness?
    low amplitude and low synchrony, high frequency
  107. As you go from alert to delta waves what happens to the waves?
    amplitude and synchrony increase while frequency decreases
  108. what stage is the deepest sleep?
    stage 3 and 4
  109. What is Stage 1 of sleep and what is the percent of sleep in this stage?
    • 4-5%- few minutes
    • Transition to awake to sleep
  110. What is Stage 2 of sleep and what is the percent of sleep in this stage?
    • 45-55%
    • Official sleep
    • Still easily woken
  111. what is stage 3 and 4?
    deep sleep
  112. what is stage 5 of sleep?
    rem sleep
  113. How long are the cycles of sleep?
    90 minute cycles each
  114. what is nrem and what sleep stages are in nrem?
    • non rem sleep 
    • stages 1-4
  115. what is the eeg in nrem?
    high amplitude, high synchrony and low frequency
  116. what are the physiological behaviors of nrem?
    • Low sympathetic response
    • High parasympathetic response
    • Low overall brain activity
    • Low overall metabolism
    • Low core body temperature
  117. what is rem and what sleep stage is this in?
    rapid eye movement and stage 5
  118. what is the eeg in rem?
    low amplitude and low synchrony and high frequency
  119. What are the physiological behaviors of rem?
    • High sympathetic response
    • Low parasympathetic response
    • High overall brain activity
    • High metabolism (sometimes greater than awake)
    • Deregulation of body temperature control (depends of your environment type)
  120. what is the paradox of rem?
    Physiological is like awake like states versus Deep sleep- like states
  121. what are the deep sleep like states of rem?
    • Low ability to respond or have reflexes
    • atonia - absence of tone (Muscle tone)- deeper muscle relaxation in REM
    • Paralysis- you are paralyzed
Card Set:
Brain and Behavior Exam 1
2017-02-21 16:50:47
brain behavior neuroscience
Neuroscience, memory, and sleep
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