Radiology2- Lung Diseases

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Mawad on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. What are causes of artifactual unstructured interstitial pattern, and how can you eliminate them when trying to rule in disease?
    • underexposure: if you can visualize the thoracic vertebrae well, it is appropriately exposed
    • expiration rads: cranially displaced diaphragm and increased contact between cardiac silhouette and diaphragm means it was probably taken during exhalation
  2. What are the most common causes of non-cavitary structural interstitial patterns? (4) What are some less common causes? (6)
    • Primary lung tumor
    • Pulmonary metastases
    • Granulomas (mycotic pneumonia)
    • Thoracic wall lesion- not within lungs, take multiple views to eliminate this possibility
    • Less common: traumatic bulla, hematoma, abscess, cyst, mucus in bronchus, lymphosarcoma (uncommon)
  3. Describe the radiographic appearance of pulmonary metastases. (3)
    • non-cavitary (usually) unstructured interstitial pattern
    • multiple, round nodules of various sizes
    • usually in middle to peripheral aspects of lungs
    • [more common than primary lung tumors]
  4. Describe the radiographic appearance of mycotic pneumonia. (3)
    • Disseminated structural interstitial pattern (milliary if nodules are very small)
    • nodules are usually the same size
    • frequently accompanied by tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy
    • [Blasto, Histo, Coccidomycosis]
  5. Describe the typical radiographic appearance of a primary lung tumor. (4)
    • structured interstitial pattern
    • usually solitary mess lesion
    • usually arise in the periphery
    • may be cavitated if communicating with a bronchus
    • [bronchogenic carcinomas most common]
  6. What are 4 other radiographic DDx for a primary lung tumor?
    • metastatic tumor
    • pulmonary granuloma
    • pulmonary abscess (esp if cavitated)
    • traumatic cyst (area of lung full of blood- should have Hx of trauma)
  7. What are the most common differentials for a cavitary structural interstitial pattern? (3) What are some less common causes? (5)
    • Paragonimiasis
    • Abscess
    • Bulla
    • Less common: primary lung tumor, pulmonary mets, mycotic granuloma, cyst, bronchiectasis
  8. Describe the typical radiographic appearance of a pulmonary abscess. (3)
    • structured interstitial pattern, often cavitated
    • focal, walled-off
    • chronic- discrete mass, acute- irregularly margined
  9. Describe the typical radiographic appearance of a pulmonary bulla. (3)
    • cavitated structured interstitial pattern
    • spherical, radiolucent area(s)
    • smooth, thin-walled
    • [congenital, traumatic, rarely infectious]
  10. What artifact mimics an unstructured interstitial pattern?
    underexposure
  11. How do you differentiate between an unstructured interstitial and an alveolar pattern?
    • if you can see the blood vessels around each bronchus- UNSTRUCTURED INTERSTITIAL
    • if you cannot see the blood vessels- ALVEOLAR
  12. What are the differentials for unstructured interstitial and alveolar patterns? (5)
    • blood (contusions, hemorrhage)
    • pus (aspiration, bronchopneumonia, septic)
    • water (cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic edema)
    • absence of air (atelectesis- expiration or pleural dz)
    • less commonly cells
  13. Describe "disease in transition".
    as bacterial infection worsens, starts with unstructured interstitial pattern that progresses to alveolar pattern; as the lung lobe then recovers, it transitions from alveolar pattern to an unstructured interstitial pattern then back to normal
  14. What is "geriatric thorax"?
    • old-age change
    • mild fibrosis, severity depending on amount of pollutants inhaled throughout life, scarring from old lesions
  15. Describe the radiographic appearance of cariogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. (3)
    • unstructured interstitial early, alveolar late/ severe
    • secondary to left heart failure- signs of HF (enlarged left heart, rounded cardiac silhouette, enlarged pulmonary veins)
    • hilar and perihilar location
  16. Describe cardiogenic pulmonary edema in cats. (3)
    • can look like anything, does not follow typical peri-hilar distribution
    • very irregular distribution pattern
    • mainly look for cardiac changes
  17. What are causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema? (7)
    • neurologic (head trauma, seizure, electric shock)
    • severe allergic reaction
    • advanced uremia
    • pancreatitis
    • irritating inhalants
    • drowning
    • radiation damage
    • [overall, very uncommon]
  18. Describe the radiographic appearance of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
    • distribution is generalized (compared to cardiogenic edema), commonly more peripheral
    • heart and pulmonary vein size is normal
  19. What are potential causes of localized interstitial patterns on thoracic radiographs? (6)
    • Partial lobe collapse
    • Contusions
    • Hemorrhage
    • Pulmonary embolism (can also have completely normal looking rads- CT is better)
    • Bronchial FB
    • Disease in transition
  20. What are potential causes of localized alveolar patterns on thoracic radiographs? (7)
    • Bronchopneumonia
    • Edema
    • Hemorrhage
    • Collapsed lobe (airway obstruction or pleural effusion)
    • Primary lung tumor
    • Pulmonary metastasis
    • Pulmonary infarct
    • [remember: exhalation is a type of atelectasis...this is why we take rads on full inspiration]
  21. Describe the different potential appearances of atelectasis on radiographs.
    • Unstructured interstitial pattern most common (esp if only a little of the gas is removed from the lobe)
    • Alveolar pattern also possible (esp if all or most of the air is removed)
  22. What are potential causes of atelectasis? (3 general, 6 specific)
    • Incomplete aeration: film made during expiration, prolonged recumbency
    • Airway obstruction: internal blockage (FB), external compression (tumor)
    • Increased intrapleural pressure: pneumothorax, pleural effusion
  23. How might pulmonary hemorrhage appear radiographically?
    • interstitial or alveolar
    • look for other signs of trauma (as trauma is the most common cause....coagulopathy also possible)- rib fractures, pleural effusion, neumothorax, diaphragmatic hernia
  24. What are some causes of generalized alveolar pattern on thoracic radiographs? (5)
    • severe bronchopneumonia
    • severe edema
    • severe pulmonary contusions
    • near-drowning
    • smoke inhalation (as in house fire, not cigarette smoke)
  25. What are the possible radiographic appearances of bacterial pneumonia? (3)
    • early- unstructured interstitial pattern, later- alveolar pattern [once you start treatment and it starts resolving, goes back to interstitial]
    • bronchial pattern- if spread via airways, lobar sign
    • hematogenous spread- patchy, multifocal distribution around vessels
  26. What are the most common locations for bronchopneumonia and aspiration pneumonia? (3)
    • [cranioventral lung lobes]
    • right cranial lung lobe
    • right middle lung lobe (ESP WITH MEGAESOPHAGUS- most common location for aspiration pneumonia with megaesophagus)
    • left cranial lung lobes
  27. How does aspiration pneumonia appear radiographically?
    • unstructured interstitial pattern or alveolar pattern
    • depends on the amount of fluid aspirated and the nature of the aspirated material
  28. The distribution of aspiration pneumonia depends on...
    • patient position at time of aspiration
    • passive aspiration--> right cranial and right middle lobes most common
    • forceful aspiration--> right caudal most common
  29. What are the causes of a bronchial pattern on thoracic radiographs? (4)
    • bronchial mineralization
    • allergic bronchitis
    • chronic bronchitis
    • peribronchial cuffing (esp with bronchopneumonia)
  30. Describe allergic bronchitis in cats? (4)
    • feline asthma
    • peribronchial infiltrate of eosinophils and mononuclear cells
    • if severe, can get interstitial edema
    • if chronic, can get permanent interstitial fibrosis
  31. What are the causes of viral bronchitis in dogs and cats?
    • Dogs- tracheobronchitis
    • Cats- upper respiratory disease
    • [not usually seen radiographically unless complicated by bacterial infection]
  32. What are the pathological aspects of bronchiectasis?
    • loss of normal bronchial tapering
    • changes in bronchial epithelium, mucus characteristics, ciliary function--> these lead to predisposition for chronic bacterial infections
  33. It is common to have __________ with bronchiectasis because...
    chronic bacterial infections/ bronchopneumonia; changes in bronchial epithelium and mucociliary elevator.
  34. What are causes of diffuse hyperlucency on thoracic radiograph? (5)
    • overexposure
    • hypovolemia
    • air trapping
    • emphysema (usually accompanied by bronchial thickeing)
    • overinflation (increased tidal volume, upper airway obstruction, iatrogenic)
  35. What are causes of focal pulmonary mineralization? (6)
    • bronchial mineralization
    • pulmonary osteomas
    • granulomas
    • histoplasmosis
    • primary lung tumor
    • aspirated barium sulfate
  36. What are causes of diffuse pulmonary mineralization? (4)
    • hyperadrenocorticism (cushings)
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • chronic uremia
    • idiopathic
  37. How many radiographs are usually needed to make a complete thoracic series on an adult horse?
    usually 4
  38. Describe bacterial pneumonia in large animals. (4)
    • usually bilateral
    • ventral distribution most common
    • interstitial or alveolar pattern
    • abscesses/ granulomas more common than in small animals
  39. You see multiple, "fluffy" soft tissue opacity masses that are sometimes cavitated in the lungs of a foal; top differential?
    Rhodococcus pneumonia
  40. Describe COPD (heave's) in horses. (4)
    • Radiographic abnormalities only seen in advanced disease
    • air trapping- you can see this by making inspiration and expiration projections (will look the same because gas is not leaving the lungs, hence "trapped")
    • reticulated interstitial pattern
    • +/- bronchiectasis
  41. How does hypovolemia appear radiographically? (3)
    • pulmonary vessels very small
    • lack of vascular markings
    • microcardia

Card Set Information

Author:
Mawad
ID:
328785
Filename:
Radiology2- Lung Diseases
Updated:
2017-02-27 17:45:09
Tags:
vetmed radiology2
Folders:

Description:
vetmed radiology2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview