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Altemeyer (1981) studied RWA in which there were 3 types of attitudes that he found that compromised RWA, what are they?
- authoritarian submission
- authoritarian aggression
a strong degree of submission to perceived legitimate authority in one's society
a general aggression and hostility directed towards out-groups
a strong adherence to social norms and traditions that are perceived as sanctioned by recognized authorities
Altemeyer identified that people with HIGH RWA tend to be more...
- conservative politically
- wish to restrict personal freedoms
- tend to hold more orthodox religious views
- tend to be very prejudiced towards out-groups
what is Social Dominance Orientation (SDO)?
- is a preference for inequality among social groups
- opposite of egalitarianism
- an attitude towards intergroup relationships which says that groups are different and organized into a hierarchical structure within society
- is highly correlated with racism and sexism
who is high and low in SDO?
- occupational status (police vs. public defender)
- group status (men vs. women)
- political conservatives as opposed to liberals
when group is threatened
- high SDOs want to maintain high status and show out-group derogation
- low SDOs oppose group differences and reduce in-group bias
need for cognition
the dispositional tendency to enjoy cognitive activity vs. to find effortful cognition aversive (and therefore rely on heuristics)
need for structure
the degree to which an individual desires clear, certain or unambiguous knowledge (ex:// structure). Pople with high need for structure prefer to halt the acquisition of further information about the world in order to reduce ambiguity
need for cognitive closure
the tendency to desire an answer on a given topic, any answer, as compared to confusion and ambiguity. This may lead an individual to preserve (or freeze) a certain state of knowledge and to block out subsequent information that might negate to invalidate the belief
three ways that the lack of diversity undermines social psychology
- liberal values and assumptions can become embedded into theory and method
- researchers may concentrate on topics that validate the liberal progress narrative and avoid topics that contest that narrative
- negative attitudes regarding conservatives can produce a psychological science that mischaracterizes their traits and attributes
- confirmation bias
behavioural immune system hypothesis
- disgust evolved to promote disease-avoidance
- may promote avoidance of anything that could be a contaminant and that is why disgust elicits aversion to contact with out-groups, as well as unorthodox sexual practices, and more generally anything that seems un-pure
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