Lecture:Cell Biology

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VASUpharm14
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32900
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Lecture:Cell Biology
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2010-09-06 00:27:38
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IBHS for Nickola
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  1. Germ Cells
    • sperm and ovum
    • sex cells!
  2. somatic cells
    • not germ cells (that's quite the definition)
    • soma = body
  3. 3 basic parts of a cell
    • 1. cell membrane
    • 2. cytoplasm = cytosol and organelles
    • 3. nucleus
  4. 4 functions of a cell membrane
    • 1. physical isolation
    • 2. sensitivity to/response to surroundings: detects changes outside
    • 3. regulation of exchange with surroundings: enter ions, release waste
    • 4. structural support: like skin cells attaching to other things to support it.
    • point: cell doesn't function alone.
  5. context: cell membrane general composition
    lipids
    • 42%
    • -phospholipids
    • -cholesterol
  6. context: cell membrane general composition
    proteins
    • 55%
    • -channels
    • -receptors
    • -enzymes
    • -carrier proteins
    • -recognition proteins
  7. context: cell membrane general composition
    carbohydrates
    • 3%
    • -glycoproteins
    • -proteoglycans
  8. context: phospholipids
    3 parts of the polar head (hydrophilic)
    • 1. polar group: choline, ethanolamine, inositol
    • 2. phosphate
    • 3. glycerol
  9. context: phospholipids
    2 types of fatty acid tails (hydrophobic)
    • 1. oleic acid
    • 2. linoleic acid
  10. context: phospholipids
    choose form:
    1)unilayer
    2)bilayer
    • 2) bilayer
    • remember the SHAMITCH :D WOW im gonna be hungry
  11. 4 things (tidbits) about the phospholipid bilayers
    • 1. phospholipid distribution is asymmetrical. sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine are on the outside more. the rest are inside more.
    • (a. transversely and b. laterally)
    • 2. phospholipid composition is dynamic. with help of FLIPPASE
    • 3. membrane fluidity is dynamic. with help of CHOLESTEROL
    • 4. membrane composition and function differs between cell populations
    • point: phospholipids can change. YES THEY CAN!
  12. context: SELECTIVELY permeable cell membrane
    5 factors to be let across the border (passports won't work here).
    • 1. molecule size (yes, size matters) ex: O2, CO2
    • 2. molecule charge ex: EtOH **water**
    • 3. molecule shape
    • 4. molecule lipid solubility
    • 5. cell membrane's composition and arrangement
  13. cell membrane needs proteins to let in what 3 types of molecules?
    • 1. large, polar, uncharged molecules ex:glucose, amino acids
    • 2. ions and charged molecules ex: amino acids, DRUGS, Na+, K+, Cl-
    • 3. lipophilic molecules ex: solubility?? (can go in, and not go in??)
  14. 2 ways proteins contribute to cell function
    • 1. is the selectively permeable part
    • 2. response of cell to environment
  15. 4 properties of membrane proteins
    • 1. asymmetrical distribution
    • 2. distribution of lateral proteins is dynamic (fluid mosaic model)
    • 3. distribution of transverse proteins is dynamic (addition/removal of transmembrane proteins)
    • 4. changes in protein conformation (PO4 , ligand binding, substrate binding)
  16. 2 ways to classify the cell membrane proteins
    • 1. position: integral vs peripheral
    • 2. function: channels (leak vs gated (ligand vs voltage)), carriers, receptors, enzymes, recognition
  17. context: ionic gradient
    T/F
    ion concentrations are equal inside and out.
    False!
  18. channel proteins
    all are integral, transmembrane protein with hydrophilic central pore
  19. context: channel proteins
    Leak channels: 4 things
    • 1. selective
    • 2. passive
    • 3. bidirectional
    • 4. open 24/7
  20. context: channel proteins
    ligand-gated channel: 4 things
    • 1. selective
    • 2. passive
    • 3. bi-directional
    • 4. open/close only for ligand
    • ex: ACh for Na+ to go in
  21. context: channel proteins
    voltage gated channels : 4 things
    • 1. selective
    • 2. passive
    • 3. bi-directional
    • 4. open/close to change in voltage, conformation change of protein
    • ex: activation of neuron
  22. carrier proteins: 4 things
    • 1. selective
    • 2. passive OR active
    • 3. bi-directional
    • 4. solute/ligand binds, conformational change (no flip flop)
  23. Receptors
    • ligand binds => activation of receptor
    • 1. integral
    • 2. requires energy mostly
    • 3. selective
  24. enzymes
    • protein catalysts that accelerate the reaction rate
    • 1. integral or peripheral
    • 2. selective
  25. one way a cell is recognized
    • cell surface proteins
    • ex: for immune recognition
  26. 3 types of carbohydrates
    • 1. glycoproteins
    • 2. glycolipids
    • 3. proteoglycans
  27. 3 functions of carbohydrates
    • 1. receptors
    • 2. cell recognition (usually faces extracellular fluid)
    • 3. cell protection and lubrication
  28. what are the 3 mechanisms of membrane transport for solutes?
    • 1. diffusion (simple vs facilitated)
    • 2. transport via carrier proteins (primary and secondary active transport)
    • 3. vesicular (endo vs exocytosis)
  29. Diffusion
    • -High to low (ex: Hoover Dam)
    • -goal: eliminate concentration gradient
    • -influenced by: distance, size, temperature, gradient, etc.
  30. Context: Diffusion
    Simple
    • down gradient = no energy required
    • lipophilic uses membrane
    • ions uses leak channels
  31. context: diffusion
    facilitated diffusion
    • down concentration = no energy required
    • carrier-mediated transport = carrier proteins
    • -specific
    • -saturated = can plateau!!!
    • -regulated
  32. context: active transport
    primary
    • Low to High = requires ATP
    • -carrier proteins
    • ex: sodium/potassium pump (3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in)
    • Kim's parents issues curfew, I have to go in at 2 although I want to go out. I have to actively go into house (cell).
  33. context: active transport
    secondary
    • -no energy required INITIALLY: energy for glucose to move in, and ATP when Na+ needs to be pumped back out.
    • -carrier proteins
    • ex:sodium/glucose transporter
    • sodium: high to low
    • glucose: low to high
    • Symport

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