Historical Terms and Figures

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  1. The movement to abolish slavery in the United States.
    abolitionism
  2. Nations that united against the Germans, Italians, and Japanese ( Axis ) forces during World War II. Mainly comprised of the United States, England, and and France. Russia joined later.
    Allies
  3. A former policy of South Africa in which the races were separated by law.
    apartheid
  4. Nations opposed to the Allies during World War II including Germany, Italy, and japan.
    Axis
  5. Great Britain's 1917 proclamation supporting the establishment of a separate homeland for Jews in Palestine.
    Balfour Declaration
  6. "Lightning war" in which surprise attacks by aircraft are immediately followed by massive attacks by ground forces, as in Hitler's 1939 invasion of Poland.
    blitzkrieg
  7. According to Marx and Engels, the middle class; in prerevolutionary France, a portion of the Third Estate comprised of middle class of artisans and merchants.
    bourgeoisie
  8. One of the four hereditary classes of society on Hinduism.
    caste
  9. Babylonian legal code that establish governmental responsibility for criminal justice.
    Code of Hammurabi
  10. Long-term period of poor relations between the United states and the Soviet Bloc from the end of World War II until the early 1990's.
    Cold War
  11. A territory under direct control of a stronger country
    colony
  12. Economic system in which the workers (the proletariat) control the means of production.
    communism
  13. Seminal work by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel in which the basic principles of communism are outlined.
    Communist manifesto
  14. "the law of the land," was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1789.
    The Constitution
  15. Campaign carried out by the Chinese red Guards 1966-1976 with the goal of revitalizing the Chinese Communist Party and consolidating Mao Zedong's leadership.
    Cultural revolution
  16. Sumerian system of writing
    cuneiform
  17. The alphabet of the Russian language and other Slavic languages
    Cyrillic alphabet
  18. A Russian emperor
    czar( or tsar )
  19. written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, this document proclaimed the American colonies' independence from Great Britain.
    Declaration of Independence
  20. A cooling of Cold war tensions initiated during the administrations of Nixon and Brezhnev.
    detente
  21. The scattering of specific ethnic groups throughout various parts of the world
    diaspora
  22. A sole ruler with absolute power
    dictator
  23. An idea prevalent during the Cold war that if one nation fell to communism, neighboring nations would likewise fall.
    domino theory
  24. Economic plans to increase industrial and agricultural productivity in the Soviet union China, and India.
    Five Year Plan
  25. Post world War I peace plan proposed by Woodrow Wilson: major points included the principle of self determination and the establishment of an association of nations.
    Fourteen Points
  26. Conference held in 1954 that divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
    Geneva Conference
  27. A Soviet policy introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorvbechev emphasizing "openness" in the sharing of information and ideas.
    glasnost
  28. Resolution passed by the U.S. Congress in 1964 authorizing president Johnson to send troops to Vietnam.
    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  29. Ancient Egyptian picture writing.
    Hieroglyphics
  30. A nomadic group from central Asia who undertook a mass migration to the Roman empire in the 400s C.E.
    Huns
  31. The political, economic, or social domination of a strong nation over another nation or territory.
    Imperialism
  32. Economic system in which no government regulation of the market is advocated.
    laissez-faire capitalism
  33. A policy passed by the U.S. Congress in 1941 allowing president Roosevelt to give arms and other supplies to any nation considered vital to the security of the United states.
    Lend-Lease- Act
  34. Document drafted in 1215 that specifies English political and civil liberties. It forms the basis of English common law.
    Magna Carta
  35. The U.S. plan to develop an atomic bomb during World War II.
    Manhattan project
  36. belief first articulate in the mid 1800's that it was the destiny of the United states to continue to expand to the west and the Pacific Ocean
    Manifest Destiny
  37. Plan put forth by U.S. Secretary of state George C. Marshall describing how to rebuild Europe after the conclusion of world war II.
    Marshall Plan
  38. A 1949 defense alliance initiated by the United States, Canada, and 10 western European nations.
    NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization )
  39. Set of domestic programs set forth by FDR's administration to help the United States over come the Great Depression.
    New Deal
  40. Old name for current day Germany. Ruled by Frederick the Great at its height of power.
    Prussia
  41. Government in which citizens are ruled by elected repersentatives
    republic
  42. The right or privilege of votng; franchise
    suffrage
  43. One pledged  to abstinence from all intoxicating drinks
    teetotaler
  44. One-party political system with the goal of supporting the welfare of the state above all else.
    totalitarianism
  45. Palace near Paris that was the seat of power for many French kings, including Louis XIV. Also the site of the Treaty of Versailles, which marked the conclusion of World War I.
    Versailles
  46. A 1955 defense alliance organized by the Soviet Union and several Eastern European nations.
    warsaw Pact
  47. Site where napoleon suffered hiss greatest defeat
    Waterloo
  48. Island where Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met to discuss the partitioning of Europe at the conclusion of World War II.
    Yalta
  49. Name given to those figures critical of the 1787 Constitution because they objected to a stronger U.S. government, which they believed would weaken the sovereignty and prestige of the individual states. The Bill of Rights was crafted in response to their criticisms.
    Anti- Federalists
  50. The name given to the loose collection of writings, dating from after the first draft of the U.S. Constitution, by those opposed to the firmer union of states envisioned by that draft.
    Anti-Federalist Papers
  51. The agreement between the original thirteen states, ratified in 1781. Due to concern that it created an overly weak fedral government, it was superseded by the U.s. Constitution in 1789.
    Articles of Confederation
  52. The collective name for the United States Constitution's first ten amendments, which list specific rights and limit the power of Congress: created September 25th, 1789, and ratified December 15, 1791.
    Bill of Rights
  53. The name for the agreement, narrowly accepted by the Constitutional Convention that resolved the debate between large and small states over representation in the new government, It outlined the House of representatives ( with proportional representation)  and Senate ( with two representative for each state).
    Connecticut ( or great) Compromise of 1787
  54. The first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, by unanimous vote, on December 7, 1787.
    Delaware
  55. The collection of writing by Alexander Hamilton,Jon Jay, and James Madison, under the pseudonym Publius, that promoted ratification of the U.S. Constitution without a Bill of Rights. Published as a collection in 1788.
    Federalist Papers
  56. The first Secretary of the United States Treasury, founder of the Federalist Party , and chief author of the federalist Papers.
    Alexander Hamilton
  57. Prominent revolutionary orator and Anti- Federalist .
    Patrick Henry
  58. The process by which portions of the Bill of Rights , originally intended only to limit federal government powers, have been applied to state governments by the U.S. Supreme Court.
    Incorporation
  59. First chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, and delegate to the First and Second continental Congresses. One of the pseudonymous authors of the Federalist Papers.
    John Jay
  60. A founding father who played a pivotal role in drafting both the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights, and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers, who later became the 4th President of the United States.
    James Madison
  61. U.S. Supreme Court ruling that held that Congress cannot pass laws contrary to the Constitution, and that the role of the judicial system includes interpreting what the Constitution permits. It is the basis for the exercise of Judicial review under Article III of the U.S. Constitution.
    Marbury v. Madison (decided 1803)
  62. The compromise that led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution.
    Massachusetts Compromise
  63. The agency of the Untied States Government responsible for preserving government and historical document, including the copy of the Bill of Rights, retained by the first congress.
    National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  64. Site of the Constitutional Convention, May 15- September 17, 1787, where the U.S. Constitution was drafted.
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  65. Constitutional amendment establish the freedoms of religion, speech, and he press. Ratified 1791
    1nd Amendment
  66. Constitutional amendment establishing the right to bear arms. Ratified 1791
    2nd Amendment
  67. Constitutional amendment prohibiting unreasonable search and seizure. Ratified 1791
    4th Amendment
  68. Constitutional amendment protecting rights of life, liberty, and property, guaranteeing due process, and protecting against double jeopardy. Ratified 1791
    5th amendment
  69. Constitutional amendment protecting against cruel and unusual punishment. Ratified 1791
    8th Amendment
  70. Constitutional amendment abolishing slavery. Ratified 1865
    13 Amendment
  71. Constitutional amendment protecting the rights of former slaves. Ratified 1868
    14th Amendment
  72. Constitutional amendment granting African American men the right to vote. Ratified 1870
    15th Amendment
  73. Constitutional amendment prohibiting the sale and consumption of alcohol. Ratified 1919
    18th Amendment
  74. Constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote. Ratified 1920
    19th Amendment
  75. Constitutional amendment repealing the 18th Amendment. Ratified 1933
    21st Amendment
  76. American Leader of the suffrage movement to grant women the right to vote
    Susan B. Anthony
  77. South and Central American general and liberator. Liberated Venezuela, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru from Spanish rule in the 19th century.
    Simon Bolivar
  78. Cuban Communist revolutionary and dicator
    Fidel Castro
  79. British Prime Minister during world war II
    Winston Churchill
  80. British general, member of Parliament, and revolutionary who ruled as Lord Protector without a king during the mid-1600's
    Oliver Cromwell
  81. President of the Confederacy during the U.S. Civil War
    Jefferson Davis
  82. Perhaps the foremost African American abolitionist
    Frederick Douglass
  83. Indian leader who achieved independence for India from British the through an organized campaign of non violent resistance and civil disobedience.
    Mohandas K. Gandhi ( Mohatma)
  84. Noted American abolitionist
    William Lloyd Garrison
  85. U.S. president after being general of the Union forces during the U.S. Civil War
    Ulysses S. Grant
  86. Famous communist revolutionary in South and Central America
    Che Guevara
  87. British monarch who began the Church of England in the 16th century
    Henry VIII
  88. U.S. president and author of the Declaration of Independence in 1776
    Thomas Jefferson
  89. U.S. president during the Cuban Missile Crisis and the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald.
    John F. Kennedy
  90. The most successful general of the Confederate forces during the U.S. Civil War
    Robert E. Lee
  91. Leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917. First leader of the Soviet Union. Bolshevik and Communist
    Vladimir Lenin
  92. U.S. president who governed during the U.S. Civil War. Issued the emancipation Proclamation. Was assassinated by John Wiles Booth.
    Abraham Lincoln
  93. Known also as the "Sun King." His rule represents the height of the French monarchy at Versailles. He was an absolute monarch who claimed to rule by Divine Right.
    Louis XIV
  94. French monarch who ruled until the French Revolution
    Louis XVI
  95. Chinese revolutionary who established communism in mainland China
    Mao Tse-Tung (or Zedong)
  96. Philosopher who first articulated the economic principles of communism
    Karl Marx
  97. Emperor who ruled France and much of Europe following the French Revolution. Nearly conquered Europe but waged an unsuccessful campaign  in Russia and tow years later lost a key battle at Waterloo.
    Napoleon Bonaparte
  98. Leader of the temperance movement (banning alcohol)
    Carry Nation
  99. French Revolutionary who ruled brutally during the early years of the French Revolution.
    Maximilien Robespierre
  100. U.S. President elected to four terms of office. President during the New Deal and the build of World War II.
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  101. British economist and author, wrote The Wealth of Nation (1776), which outlines the basic ideas of free-market (laissez-faire) capitalism.
    Adam Smith
  102. Soviet leader during World War II and the Cold War years that followed.
    Joseph Stalin
  103. American leader of the women's rights movement
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  104. Important African American spokesperson and scholar of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
    Booker T. Washington
  105. First U.S. president and general of the American Colonies' revolutionary army.
    George Washington

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Author:
crunchybunnies27
ID:
329007
Filename:
Historical Terms and Figures
Updated:
2017-03-08 17:36:47
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brmat MAT
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Historical terms for MAT
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