Anatomy ch 2 part 2

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cswett
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32912
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Anatomy ch 2 part 2
Updated:
2010-09-05 22:20:54
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Anatomy organic inorganic compounds macromolecules
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Lecture notes from Anatomy chapter 2
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  1. Buffer systems
    • chemicals that can convert strong acids or bases into weak ones
    • CARBONIC ACIDS - BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEMS
    • H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-
    • Carbonic Acid (weak acid) ↔ Hydrogen Ion (strong acid) + Bicarbonate (weak base)
  2. Acid - Base balance
    • Strong acid = dissociates more = donates more H+
    • weak acid = dissociates less - donates less H+
    • dissociation = separate into ions and become surrounded by water molecules
  3. carbon skeleton
    hydrocarbon
    functional groups
    • chain of carbon (organic molecule) - covalently bonded
    • hydrogen bonded to a carbon skeleton
    • other atoms or molecules attached to a carbon skeleton
  4. monomers
    polymers
    isomers
    • monomer = one part
    • polymer = many parts (formed by covalent bonds)
    • macromolecule = very large molecules (formed by dehydration systhesis)
    • isomers have the same molecular formula but different structural formula
  5. Macromolecules - 5
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Proteins
    • 3. Nucleic Acids
    • 4. ATP
    • 5. Lipids
  6. Carbohydrates
    • macromolecule - sugar is its monomer
    • consist of C, H, O
    • used to fuel ATP production
    • Monosaccharides - one - simple sugar
    • disaccharide - two - simple sugars
    • polysaccharides - many - complex sugars- GLYCOGEN (insoluble in water)- function as glycose storage in the liver and skeletal muscles - 3x as much in skeletal muscles - limited amount of storage space - excess is turned to fat
    • For every 2.2 lbs of fat - body has to add miles of blood vessels to support it
  7. Lipids
    • hydrophilic - less polar so less soluble in water than carbs
    • made of C, H O
    • lipoproteins - lipid/ proteins that are water soluble because the proteins are on the outside
    • 1. Tryglycerides
    • 2. Phospholipids
    • 3. Steroids
    • 4. Eicosanoids
  8. Triglycerides
    Adipose tissue
    • Triglycerides (Triacylglycerols) - glycerol molecule (3 carbon) and three fatty acid chains
    • most numerous lipid in the body - stores 2x as much energy at carbs
    • excess is stored as adipose tissue - fat tissue
    • 1. Saturated Fats
    • 2. Monounsaturated fats
    • 3. Polyunsaturated fats
  9. Saturated fats
    Monounsaturated fats
    polyunsaturated fats
    • saturated fats - triglycerides that contain only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acids - straight fats pack tight - solid at room temperature
    • monounsaturated fats - triglicerides that have one double bond between carbon atoms - kink in the acid - liquid at room temp
    • polyunsaturated fats - more than one double bond - kinks - liquid
  10. phospholipids
    amphipathic
    • glycerol molecule (3Carbon) + phosphate molecule + 2 fatty acid tails
    • major component of cell membranes
    • amphipathic molecules contain both polar and nonpolar parts
  11. Steroids
    • four attached carbon rings
    • found in sex hormones, bile, structural components of cell membrane, and fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K
  12. Eicosanoids
    • 20 carbon fatty acid - messengers that help regulate bodily functions
    • Two Types
    • Prostagladins - many functions - eg reg body temp, form blood clots
    • Leukotrienes - participate in allergic and inflammatory response
  13. Proteins
    • macromolecules consisting of C,H,O,N, and S
    • monomer = amino acids
    • 20 different amino acids exist - combine in different ways via peptide bonds to build proteins
  14. 4 levels of protein structure
    • 1. Primary - order of amino acids - genetically determined - linked by covalent bonds (called a peptide bond)
    • 2. Secondary - large scale pleating and folding - alpha helix (clockwise spiral) and beta pleated sheets - shape held in place by hydrogen bonds
    • 3. Tertiary - 3D shape of the protein - chaperones aid the folding process - hydrophobic portions folded inside
    • 4. Quarternary - two or move polypeptides arranged toegther
  15. Amino Acids
    • carbon atom + three functional groups
    • amino group (-NH2) + carboxyl group (-COOH) + R group (side chain)
    • PROTEINS ARE BUFFERS
    • amino group is a hydrogen accepter
    • carboxyl group is a hydrogen donater
  16. peptide bond
    peptide
    polypeptide
    • covalent bond between two amino acids - dipeptide - dehydration synthesis
    • peptide is 4-9 amino acid chain
    • polypeptide 10-200 amino acid chain
  17. enzyme
    • enzyme is a catalyst but not all catalysts are enzymes
    • proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
    • Very specific - each enzyme only work on specific substrates
    • Efficient - enzyme can be reused
    • -ase = enzyme
    • Under the control of the cell - rate of reaction is controlled by the cell
  18. nucleic acids
    • DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • RNA - Ribonucleic acid
    • contain C, H, O ,N, P
    • store and transmit genetic information
    • determine the order that amino acids combine to form protiens
    • consist of building block called nucleotides
    • nucelotides = phosphate + pentose (5C) sugar + Nitrogenous bases
  19. nitrogenous bases
    • DNA:
    • Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine
    • RNA:
    • Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine
    • Purines: G, A - large double ring bases
    • Pyrimidines: C,U,T - small, single ring bases
  20. ATP - Adenosine triphosphate
    • Energy currency of the body - any process in the body that uses energy, uses ATP
    • similar in structure to nucleotides-
    • Adenosine = adenine + ribose sugar
    • ATP = Adenosine + 3 phosphates
    • ADP = Adenosine + 2 phosphates
    • ATP = ADP + P - releases energy
  21. Anaerobic phase (of cellular respiration)
    • does not require oxygen
    • glucose is broken two into two pyruvates (pyruvic acid) by catabolic processes
    • yeild 2 ATP
  22. Aerobic phase (of cellular respiration)
    • uses oxygen
    • glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water
    • Release heat and 36 or 38 ATP
  23. Anabolism and catabolism of ATP
    ATP + H2O →ATPase→ ADP + P + E (energy)

    ADP + P + E →ATP synthase→ ATP + H2O

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