Chapter 3/4 Test Review

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  1. Neuron size
    up to 2 meters long
  2. Human cell size
    10-15 mincrometers in diameter
  3. Egg cells size
    100 micrometers
  4. Nerve cell size
    1 meter long
  5. Limitation on cell size
    cell growth increases volume more than surface area
  6. Plasma membrane
    made of proteins and lipids, surrounds cell
  7. Cytoplasm inside?
    organelles, cytoskeleton, cytosol ICF, ECF
  8. Membrane lipids
    98% of molecules in plama membrane are lipids
  9. Phospholipids
    75% of membrane lipids are phospholipids
  10. Cholesterol
    20% of the membrane lipids, stiffen membrane
  11. Glycolipids
    5% of the membrane lipids, contributes to glycocalyx
  12. Membrane proteins
    2% of the molecules in plasma membrane, 50% of its weight
  13. Peripheral proteins
    adhere to on face of the membrane, help anchor the membrane
  14. Functions of membrane proteins include
    receptors, second messenger systes, enzymes, ion channels, carriers, cell identity markers, cell adhesion molecules
  15. Receptors
    surface proteins on plasma membrane of target cell
  16. Channelopathies
    family of diseases that result from defects in channel proteins
  17. Transmembrane proteins bind to
    glucose, electrolytes, and other solutes
  18. If down a concentration gradient
    it is carrier, no ATP required
  19. Up a concentration gradient
    is called a pump, ATP is consumed
  20. Glycoproteins
    are the identity markers for our immune system
  21. First messenger
    the chemical that binds to a receptor is the first messenger, 1st messenger activates G-protein which relays signal to surface enzyme Adenylate Cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP
  22. Second messenger
    cAMP activates kinase in the cytosol, kinases add phosphate group to other cellular enzymes and turns on internal cell (activates/deactivates)
  23. Modern drugs
    up to 60% of modern drugs work by altering activity of G protein
  24. Glycocalyx
    unique fuzzy coat external to the plasma membrane
  25. Microvilli
    brush border, actin protein
  26. Motile cilia size
    7-10 micrometers long
  27. Axoneme
    core of cilia that is the structural basis for ciliary movement
  28. 9+2 structure of microtubules
    nine triplets of microtubules form basal body inside the cell membrane, dynein arms crawl up adjacent microtubules bending the cilia
  29. Types of Passive transport
    filtration, diffusion, osmosis
  30. Active transport (consumes ATP)
    active, vesicular, carrier mediated
  31. Filtration
    process in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure, from high to low pressure
  32. Simple diffusion
    the net movement of particles from high to low concentration
  33. Simple diffusion rates
    increase- temp, concentration, membrane surface area, membrane permeability...decrease-molecular weight
  34. Osmosis
    flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other
  35. Aquaporins
    channel proteins in plasma membrane specialized for passage of water
  36. Osmolality
    number of osmoles of solute per kilogram of water
  37. Osmolarity
    number of osmoles of solutes per liter of solutions
  38. One osmole
    1 mole of dissolved particles
  39. Tonicity
    ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure in a cell
  40. Blood plasma
    300 mOsm/L
  41. Hypotonic
    cell bursts
  42. Hypertonic
    cell shrivels
  43. As the solute concentration rises, the rate of transport rises, but only to a point?
    transport maximum
  44. Types of carrier mediated transport
    facilitated diffusion and active transport
  45. Uniport
    carries only one solute at a time
  46. Symport
    carries two or more solutes simultaneously in same direction (cotransport)
  47. Antiport
    carries two or more solutes in opposite directions (countertransport)
  48. Facilitated diffusion
    carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient (does not consume ATP)
  49. Active transport
    carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane up (against) its concentration gradient, ATP is consumed
  50. Secondary active transport
    steep concentration gradient maintained between one side of the membrane and the other (like water behind a dam) does not directly consume ATP
  51. Vesicular transport
    processes that move large particles, fluid droplets, or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles
  52. Endocytosis
    vesicular processes that bring material into the cell
  53. Phagocytosis
    "cell eating" engulfing large particles (pseudopods, phagosomes, macrophages)
  54. Pinocytosis
    "cell drinking" taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful in the cell
  55. Exocytosis
    discharging material from the cell
  56. Clathrin coated vesicle
    uptake of LDL from bloodstream
  57. Cytoskeleton
    collection of filaments and cylinders, composed of- microfilaments 6nm forms terminal web, intermediate fibers 8-10 nm support, microtubules 25nm tubulin
  58. Microtubules
    a microtubules is a cylinder of 13 parallel strands called protofilaments
  59. Membranous organelles
    nucleus, mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisomes, ER, and golgi
  60. Nonmembranous organelles
    ribosomes, centrosomes, centrioles, basal bodies
  61. Smooth ER
    detoxify alcohol and other drugs, synthesizes steroids and other lipids
  62. Lysosomes
    package of enzymes bound by a single unit membrane
  63. Autophagy
    digest and dispose of worn out mitochondria and other organelles
  64. Autolysis
    "cell suicide" some cells are destroyed after completing their jobs
  65. Peroxisomes
    produced by smooth ER
  66. Centriole
    a short cylindrical assembly of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three microtubules each
  67. Kinds of inclusions
    stored cellular products, foreign bodies, not essential for cell survival
  68. Stored cellular products
    glycogen, pigments, and fat droplets
  69. Foreign bodies
    viruses, intracellular bacteria, dust particles
  70. Enucleate cells
    no nucleus (mature RBC)
  71. Multinucleate cells
    2-50 nuclei (skeletal muscle)
  72. Nuclear envelope
    surrounds nucleus, has two unit membrane
  73. Nuclear pores
    perforate nuclear envelope
  74. Nucleoplasm
    material within nucleus
  75. Chromatin
    DNA and associated proteins, looks like granular thread
  76. Nucleoli
    Dark staining, produce ribosome subunits
  77. Nuclear pore function
    formed ring shaped complex of proteins, regulates traffics through envelope, holds envelope together
  78. Nucleosomes
    cluster of eight proteins histones, serve a spools to protect and organize DNA
  79. Supercoils of DNA
    preparation for cell division
  80. Neucleotides consist of
    sugar- ribose or deoxyribose, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
  81. Purines
    doubles carbon nitrogen ring, Adenine, Guanine
  82. Pyrimidines
    single carbon nitrogen ring, Thymine, Uracil, and Cytosine
  83. DNA
    serves as code for protein synthesis, cell replication, and reproduction
  84. Gene
    sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for one polypeptide
  85. Genome
    all the genes of one person
  86. tRNA size
    70-90 bases
  87. mRNA size
    10,000 bases
  88. DNA size
    a billion bases
  89. Mitosis
    cell replication
  90. Meiosis
    cell reproduction
  91. Genetic code
    4 nucleotides code for 20 amino acids
  92. Base triplet
    sequence of 3 DNA nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
  93. Start codon
    AUG, Methionine
  94. How many codons?
  95. Posttranscriptional modification
    enzymes remove introns and splice exons together
  96. Polyribosome
    cluster of 10-20 ribosomes reading mRNA at once
  97. DNA and Peptide Formation Steps
    1.DNA Double Helix, 2.DNA Coding Strand, 3.Codons of mRNA, 4.Anticodons of tRNA, 5.Amino Acids, 6.Peptide
  98. Chaperones
    assist in proper folding of new proteins, may escort protein to destination in cell, are also stress and heat shock proteins
  99. Posttranslational modification signal peptide
    amino acid sequence that causes polyribosome to migrate to RER and enters cisterna
  100. Posttranslational modification in RER Cisterna
    signal peptide removed, may remove amino acids, fold protein, form disulfide bridges or add CHO gorups
  101. Golgi vesicles
    some golgi vesicles become lysosomes and stay in cell or some become secretory vesicles
  102. DNA Replication
    DNA unwinds from histones, DNA helicase opens short segments, replication by DNA polymerase
  103. Semiconservative replication
    each new DNA has one new Helix and the other Helix conserved form the parent DNA
  104. Error rates in bacteria
    3 errors per 100,000 bases copied
  105. Error rates in human cells
    1 error per 1 billion basses copied
  106. Mutations
    changes in DNA structure due to replication errors or environmental factors
  107. Effects of mutations
    nothing, kill cell, turn cell cancerous, cause genetic defects
  108. Interphase is divided into
    G1, S, G2
  109. G1 phase
    normal cellular function
  110. S phase
    synthesis phase, DNA replication
  111. G2 phase
    second gap phase, preparation for mitosis, replicates centrioles,
  112. M phase
    mitotic phase, nuclear and cytoplasmic division
  113. G0
    cells that have left the cycle
  114. Functions of Mitosis
    embryonic development, tissue growth replacement of old and dead cells
  115. Mitosis Prohase
    chromatin supercoils into chromosomes, nuclear envelope disintegrates, centrioles sprout microtubules into mitotic spindle move to poles, nucleoli disintegrates, spindle apparatus is completed
  116. Mitosis Metaphase
    chromosomes line up on equator, spindle fibers attach to centromere, asters anchor centrioles to plasma membrane
  117. Mitosis Anaphase
    centromeres divide, spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite poles
  118. Mitosis Telophase
    chromatin uncoils, nuclear envelope and nucleoli forms, mitotic spindle breaks down
  119. Cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm (cleavage furrow)
  120. Cells divide when
    cells large enough, DNA replicated, adequate supply of nutrients, growth factor stimulation, open space in tissue
  121. Cells stop dividing when
    loss of growth factor or nutrients, contact inhibition
  122. Tumors
    abnormal growth when cells multiply faster than they die
  123. Oncology
    the study of tumors
  124. Benign and Malignant
    benign are encapsulated, malignant are unencapsulated
  125. Defenses against mutagens
    scavenger cells (remove them), peroxisomes (neutralize), nuclear enzymes (repair DNA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF destory)
  126. Oncogene facts
    mutated from proto-oncogenes, six oncogenes cause excessive production of growth factors, ras oncogene codes for abnormal growth factor receptors
  127. Karyotype
    chart of chromosomes at metaphase by size, structure
  128. Homologous chromosomes
    autosomes (22 pairs), sex chromosome ( x and y)
  129. Germ cells
    (gametes) sperm and egg cells, haploid
  130. Somatic cells
    all other cells beside reproductive cells, diploid
  131. Alleles
    two homologous chromosomes have same gene at same locus, may be different forms of gene
  132. Dominant allele
    produces normal, functional protein
  133. Recessive allele
    when both alleles are recessive produce abnormal protein or none at all
  134. Gene pool
    collective genetic makeup of whole population
  135. Multiple alleles
    more than 2 alleles for a trait
  136. Incomplete dominance
    phenotype intermediate between traits for each allele (pink flower)
  137. Polygenic inheritance
    2 or more genes combine their effects to produce single phenotype trait like skin color
  138. Pleiotropy
    single gene causes multiple phenotype traits, such as sickle cell disease, anemia, enlarged spleen, etc.
  139. Penetrance
    percentage of population to express predicted phenotype
Card Set:
Chapter 3/4 Test Review
2017-03-02 21:36:12

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