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based on observation and the testing of our assumptions -- hypotheses -- against the evidence in the real world -- empiricism
accounts for many of he beliefs we have held to be true
Methods of establishing truth that were employed before the development of the scientific method
intuition, authority, tenacity
when we can no longer find agreement about our beliefs; rely on experts whom we consider more competent and credible than ourselves.
based on our personal values, early socialization or common sense.
620 involves observing the world and developing explanation of regularities; start from reality and try to build theory
720 specific to general
607 uses specific instances to arrive at general conclusions
607 general applied to specific (logic, rationalism)
720 based on theory
- 620 start from theory and try to explain phenomena (deductive); involves comparing
- theoretical expectation with what actually goes on in the world.
Our BEHAVIOR toward thingsThe realm of motivesMessages stimulate or direct desires
- 1. If-then statement
- 2. Is more likely to statement
- 3. Greater the X, greater the Y statement
- 4. Leads to statement