Philosophy Terms and Figures

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  1. Belief that all knowledge is derived from experience.
    empiricism
  2. The belief that existence only acquires value and meaning through active reflection on one's own existence.
    existentialism
  3. Belief that the so-called external world exists first and foremost in the perceiver's mind.
    idealism
  4. Belief that a concept is meaningful only if it can be empirically verified
    logical positivism
  5. Rebirth of Platonic thought in Europe from C.E. 250-1250. Incorporated the ideas of Aristotle, Pythagoras, and others into the teachings of Plato.
    neoplatonism
  6. Belief that the world can be known through reason alone.
    rationalism
  7. Belief put forth by john Locke that the human mind begins as a blank slate.
    tabula rasa
  8. System of ethics based on maximizing the collective good.
    utilitarianism
  9. Thirteenth-century Christian philosopher. Wrote " The Five Ways," which outlined five proofs for the existence of God.
    St. Thomas Aquinas
  10. Plato's student who criticized the theory of Forms and developed a systematized logic.
    Aristotle
  11. Fourth-and 5th-century bishop, philosopher, and neoplatonist.
    Augustine of Hippo
  12. Irish idealist philosopher who viewed mental representations and impressions as fundamental.
    George, Berkeley
  13. Important French rationalist philosopher and mathematician. Saw mind and body as distinct ( Cartesian dualism). He is also famous for the quote " I think, therefore I am."
    Rene' Descartes
  14. German idealist philosopher known for his theory of dialectic: "The thesis combines with the antithesis to form the synthesis of the two." Also known for his teleological orientation.
    George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
  15. German philosopher who had a major influence on existentialism.
    Martin, Heidegger
  16. British materialist philosopher who viewed human existence as "nasty, brutish, and short.'
    Thomas Hobbes
  17. Scottish empiricist philosopher. Questioned the necessity of connection between cause and effect.
    David Hume
  18. German philosopher known as the father of phenomenology.
    Edmund Husserl
  19. American empiricist philosopher and psychologist. Known for his description of the flow of ideas as a " stream of consciousness."
    William James
  20. German idealist philosopher best known for the "categorical imperative," which states that a moral agent acts only in ways that could become universal laws.
    Immanuel Kant
  21. Danish existentialist philosopher.
    Soren Kierkegaard
  22. German rationalist philosopher and mathematician
    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz
  23. English empiricist philosopher who put forth many of the basic ideas of empiricism, including tabula rasa. Important figures in the Age of Enlightenment.
    John Locke
  24. English empiricist philosopher known for his ethical writings on Utilitarianism
    John Stuart Mill
  25. German philosopher best known for his concept of Ubermensch( superman)
    Friedrich Nietzsche
  26. Fourteenth-century English philosopher who developed the notion of "parsimony." According to Occam's Razor, simpler explanations are preferable to more complex ones.
    William of Occam
  27. French philosopher, mathematician, and theologian best known for "Pascal's bargain," which argues for the belief int he existence of God.
    Blaise Pascal
  28. Greek philosopher who studied under Socrates and developed a theory of Forms in which things in this world are mere reflections or shadows of objects of knowledge, which are universals. His writing form the basis of much of Western philosophy.
    Plato
  29. Pre-Socrates philosopher and mathematician
    Pythagoras
  30. French Romantic philosopher and philosopher of educatin.
    Jean Jaqcues Rousseau
  31. British philosopher and linguist
    Bertrand Russell
  32. British philosopher of language and logical positivist
    Gilbert Ryle
  33. French existentialist philospher
    Jean Paul Sartre
  34. Greek philosopher whose oral teachings were transcribed in part by his student, Plato
    Socrates
  35. christian philosopher. Developed an ontological argument for the existence of God.
    St. Anselm of Canterbury
  36. Austrian philosopher who began as a logical positivist and alter developed important ideas on the philosophy of language.
    Ludwig Wittgenstein

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crunchybunnies27
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329332
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Philosophy Terms and Figures
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2017-03-08 18:51:11
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Philosophy terms and figures for the MAT
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