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Where does the energy come from that makes life possible on earth?
Can light energy be stored as chemical energy? In what substances?
- Baking Soda and Vinegar
What are the two major processes of photosynthesis? Where do they take place in the chloroplast? From what substance?
- Grana (Light Dependent)
- Stroma (Carbs Synthesis)
What colors are most commonly used in photosynthesis?
Red and violet-blue
What are the three things that can occur when light strikes a leaf?
Transmitted, Reflected, or Absorbed
What are the two things that the Light Dependent Reactions produce that are required for the Light Independent Reactions (Carbohydrate Synthesis) to take place?
ATP and NADPH
Is it true that hydrogen atoms are transferred from water to carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and that this results in the formation of an energy – rich molecule? What is this molecule?
From what substance do the oxygen atoms come from that the plant releases as oxygen gas during photosynthesis?
Write the equation for cell respiration.
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + ATP
What is produced by animal cells?
What is produced by yeast if there is no oxygen available?
Alcohol and carbon dioxide if oxygen is available.
Where does each of the three major parts of cell respiration take place in the cell?
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm (needs oxygen)
Citric acid cycle (no oxygen) and Oxidative Phosphorylation (needs oxygen) take place in mitochondria.
Know that the Electron Transport System binds hydrogen to oxygen to form water and that this System produces most of the ATP from the breakdown of glucose.
Name the three major processes of cell respiration.
Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation
Name the parts of the cell that we discussed and describe the function of each part.
- Mitochondrion - forms lots of ATP
- Nucleus - Contains instructions for how the cell will function
- Ribosome - Site of protein synthesis
- Smooth surfaced endoplasmic recticulum - Has enzymes to detoxify poisons
- Lysosome - Has enzymes for intracellular digestion
- Golgi apparatus - Packages proteins into vesicles
Name and describe each of the Active and Passive processes that move materials across cell membranes.
Active Transport - Using ATP to move a substance up its concentration gradient
Osmosis - Diffusion of water across the selectively permeable membrane
Diffusion - Spontaneous movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
What is the general equation for enzyme action?
E + S ↔ ES ↔ E + P
- E = enzyme
- S = substrate
- ES = enzyme-substrate complex
- P = product
Is an enzyme used up in the chemical reaction it catalyzes?
No. Lowers activation energy and speeds up reaction rate.
What is the ‘energy of activation’
The energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
Can an enzyme catalyze more than one type of chemical reaction?
No. One enzyme can only catalyze one type of reaction.
Name three things that can alter an enzyme’s activity.
- Competitive inhibitor
- Non-competitive inhibitor
- Feedback inhibitor
What has happened to the enzyme if it has been denatured?
Stops working properly
Can this be reversed so the enzyme is able to catalyze its chemical reaction again?
Compare the three differences between DNA and RNA.
- Double Strand
- Single Strand
Know that a nucleotide is...
the basic unit of DNA
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
Sugar, Phosphate, a nitrogenous base
What kind of chemical bond holds the nucleobases of complementary strands of the DNA double helix together?
Describe the chromosome of prokaryotes. Do they have any other organized DNA?
Prokaryotes have one circular chomosomes and small circular rings of DNA called plasmids
Is a cell always producing all the proteins its genes code for?
What are three steps during the production of proteins where the process can be stopped?
Initiation. Elongation. Termination
Is an mRNA molecule ready to leave the nucleus as soon as it is transcribed?
What are ‘introns’?
Internal noncoding regions
What are ‘exons’?
The coding regions, parts of the gene that are expressed
What is a gene and what does it code for?
Small sections of DNA within the genome that code for proteins
Describe what happens during ‘transcription’
RNA polymerase seperates DNA strands and uses one of the strands as a template to assemble nucleotides into a complementary strand of RNA.
Describe what happens during ‘translation’
The cell uses information from the mRNA to produce proteins.
What is the end result of translation?
Formation of a new polypeptide which becomes a protein
All the variation one sees in a species is due to...
A gradual accumulation of mutations
What are codons and where are they located?
A 3 nucleobase sequence located on mRNA.
What are anticodons and where are they found?
A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code on the molecules of tRNA
What are the nucleobases in both DNA and RNA and what kind of bond holds them together?
What is a ‘mutation?
Changes in the nucleobase sequence of DNA/Chromosome
What are the three basic kinds of mutations?
What can cause mutation?
- Ultraviolet light
What are the two cell division processes and what kind of cells does each produce?
- Mitosis - body cells
- Meiosis - sex cells
What were the two parts to Darwin's Theory and evidence he had for each part?
Charles Darwin found that fossils he collected during his voyage to the South American coast on the HMS Beagle were more similar to present day species than to fossils found on other continents. During his trip to the Galapagos Islands he observed that that organisms from the past are not the same as those found today.
Darwin observed variation of inherited traits among organisms. Adaptation to the environment helped species produce more offspring than the environment could support.
Discuss the structure of the cell membrane
Lipid bilayer with proteins and cholesterol inbedded in it.
Two functions of the cell membrane
Regulating which molecules go in and out of the cell
Separating incompatible processes occurring within organelles
Discuss the fluid Mosaic Theory
The membrane structure depicts a cellular membrane as a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipid molecules
How are the 4 nucleobases in DNA joined together
They are attached to each other in the center to make the rungs, and the sugars are joined together by phosphates to form the sides of the ladder
Cell theory includes 3 things
- Cells come from other cells
- All known living things are made up of one or more cells
- Cell is the basic unit of life/structure
What is on the outside of an animal cell membrane and what is one function of it?
Glycocalyx - limits cell divisions
Light independent reactions convert carbon dioxide into a carbohydrate
Enzymes are broken down as they catalyze reactions. True or False?
Anticodons are three nucleobase sequences found in genes. True or False?
Photosynthetic autotrophs use ___ from the air as a carbon source and ___ as their energy source.
Three places where genes can be regulated.
Transcription, Translation, Replication
Three main difference between plant and animal cells.
Animal Cells: No Cell Wall, No Chloroplasts, Centrioles
Plant Cells: Cell Wall, Chloroplasts, No Centrioles
What is outside a plant cell membrane and what is one of its functions?
Cell Wall - to provide structure
Describe the two Laws of Thermodynamics
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed