Radiology PP-U&Z1 Exposure Errors/Pupal lesions

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  1. What is an unexposed radiograph and what is the cause and solution
    • Receptor was not exposed to x-rays
    • Results in clear image
    • Cause:Machine not turned on, electrical failure, malfunction of machine
    • Correction: Be sure unit is turned on and listen for the exposure button signal
  2. What is a radiograph exposed to Light (film only) and what is the cause
    • Receptor exposed to white light
    • Appears black
    • Cause:Unwrapping film in a room with white light
  3. What does an overexposed film appear as and what is the cause?
    • Receptor appears dark
    • Cause:Excessive exposure time, kV, mA or a combination
  4. What does an underexposed radiograph appear as and what is the cause?
    • Receptor appears light
    • Cause:Inadequate exposure time, kV, mA or a combination
  5. Edge of receptor should be ______ with the incisal or occlusal surfaces to avoid a _______
    • parallel
    • tipped (diagonal) occlusal plane
  6. What technique error is this?
    Image Upload
    Dropped receptor corner
  7. Horizontal angulation causes what technique error
  8. Vertical angulation being too flat or insufficient causes what technique error
  9. Vertical angulation being too steep or excessive causes what technique error
  10. What technique error is a cone cut
  11. What technique error is this?
    Image Upload
    bent film
  12. What technique error is this?
    Image Upload
    Excessive bending
  13. What technique error is this?
    Image Upload
    Double exposure
  14. What technique error is this?
    Image Upload
    Herringbone (Traditional Film placed Backwards)
  15. What are the two causes of cone cut?
    • PID is not centered over the receptor
    • Improper Assembly of XCP
  16. Pulpal lesions viewed on radiographs include:
    šSclerosis, Obliteration, and Stones
  17. Describe Pulpal Sclerosis and the cause
    • šThin, atrophic pulp chambers and canals
    • šDiffuse calcification of chamber and canals
    • šAssociated w/ aging
    • šNo clinical signs or symptoms
    • šOnly problem occurs if endo is needed
  18. Describe Pulpal Obliteration and the cause:
    • šPulp chamber and canals are absent
    • šDue to formation of secondary dentin in response to irritants to the pulp:š Attrition, abrasion, caries, dental restorations, trauma, abnormal mechanical forcesš
    • šTooth may clinically appear discolored
  19. Describe Pulp stones and the cause
    • šCalcifications in pulp chamber or canals
    • šCause unknownš
    • Round, ovoid, or cylindrical radiopacities.š
    • Of little significance unless endo is required.
  20. What is Physiological resorption
    šNormal root resorption of primary teeth
  21. What is Pathological resorption and what are the two types:
    • šoccurs when tooth is subjected to abnormal stimuli
    • šInternal vs. External
  22. Where does internal resorption occur, what is the appearance and the cause?
    • šOccurs within the crown or root of the tooth.
    • šInvolves pulp chamber, pulp canal, and surrounding dentin.
    • šAppearance: Round to ovoid radiolucency in the middle of the crown or root.š
    • Cause: Trauma, pulp capping, pulp polyps (act as irritants that destroy surrounding dentin)
    • šGenerally asymptomaticš
    • More common in anteriors
    • šTreatment varies depends on severity/tooth structure involvement:
    • šEndodontic Treatment or Extraction
  23. Image Upload
    Internal resorption
  24. Where is external resorption located and what is the cause and treatment
    • šLocated along the periphery of root (usually at apex).š
    • Root appears blunted, shortenedš
    • Lamina dura, bone appear normal
    • šNot detected clinically/no symptoms
    • šNo treatment available for external resorption
    • šAssociated with: šRe-implanted teeth, abnormal mechanical forces, trauma, chronic inflammation, tumors or cysts, impacted teeth, or idiopathic causes
  25. Image Upload
    External root resorption
  26. ______, _______, and ______ are the most common periapical radiolucencies
    Periapical granulomas, cysts and abscesses
  27. What is a periapical granuloma?
    • šLocalized mass of chronically inflamed granulation tissue at the apex of a nonvital tooth.š
    • Results from pulpal death and necrosis
    • šMost common sequela of pulpitis (infl of pulp)š
    • Typically asymptomatic but w/ previous sens. to hot/coldš
    • Treatment: RCT or extraction w/ currettage of apical area
  28. What is the appearance of a Periapical Granuloma
    • šWidened PDL at apex that gradually enlarges to form a round or ovoid RL
    • šLamina dura is NOT visible between root apex and the apical RL lesion
  29. Image Upload
    Periapical Granuloma
  30. What is a periapical cyst and what is it also known as?
    • šAKA “radicular cyst”
    • šMost common of all tooth related cysts
    • š50-70% of ALL cysts in the oral region
    • šLesion w/ epith lining at apex of a non-vital toothš
    • Develops over a prolonged periodš
    • Most begin as a granuloma
    • šResults from pulpal death and necrosisš
    • Typically asymptomatic
    • šLeft untreated, can expand
  31. What is the appearance and treatment of a periapical cyst
    • Appearance: Round/ovoid RL at apex/Lamina dura not visible between root and lesion
    • Treatment:RCT or extr. w/ curretage
  32. Image Upload
    Periapical cyst
  33. What is a periapical abscess
    • šCollection of pus in periapical regionšNon-vital tooth/Results from pulpal death and necrosis
    • šMay be acute (intense, throbbing, painful): having features of an acute, pus-producing inflammation of the pulp; or may result from an area of chronic infection such as a PA granuloma
    • šMay be chronic (long-standing, low grade, pus-producing/draining process/usually asymptomatic) resulting from acute abscess or a PA granuloma
  34. What are the symptoms of Acute Periapical Abscess
    • šIntense pain: throbbing & constant
    • šSensitive to pressure, percussion, and heatš
    • Tooth is non-vitalš
    • Early changes: none or widened PDL
  35. What are the symptoms of Chronic Periapical Abscess
    • šAsymptomatic due to pus drainage through bone or PDL spaceš
    • Gum “boil” may be present
    • šChronic PA abscess appears as round or ovoid RL at apex w/ poorly defined margins
    • šLamina dura cannot be seen between root apex and RL lesion
  36. What is the treatment of a periapical abscess
    šDrainage of the area and RCT or extraction
  37. What are the three Periapical Radiopacities
    šCondensing Osteitis, Sclerotic bone and Hypercementosis
  38. What is Condensing Osteitis and what is the cause
    • šBelieved to be a physiological reaction of bone to inflammation
    • šTooth is non-vitalš
    • Typically associated w/ large carious lesion/restorationš
    • Result of long-standing pulpitis, pulpal necrosisš
    • Opacity represents proliferation of periapical bone that is a result of low-grade inflammation or mild irritation
  39. What is the appearance, treatment and most common location of Condensing Osteitis
    • šWell-defined RP at apexš
    • Varies in size/shape
    • šDoes NOT appear to be attached to root
    • No treatment necessary
  40. Image Upload
    Condensing Osteitis
  41. What is sclerotic bone
    • šAKA “Osteosclerosis” or “Idiopathic periapical osteosclerosis”
    • ššWell defined radiopacity below the apices of vital, noncarious teethš
    • Cause unknown (not believed to be associated with inflammation)
    • šAsymptomatic –typically discovered during radiographic examination
  42. What is the appearance of Sclerotic Bone
    • šWell-definedš
    • Not attached to rootš
    • Varies in shape/size
    • šBorders may be smooth, irregular, or diffuse
    • šBorders continuous w/adjacent normal boneš
    • No RL outlineš
    • Not necessary to remove the bone, but treatment of the non-vital tooth requires RCT or extraction
  43. Image Upload
    Sclerotic Bone
  44. What is Hypercementosis
    • šExcessive formation of cementum on all or part of root surfaces (most commonly at apical area)
    • Cause is at times not obvious; or from supraeruption, inflammation, trauma
    • No clinical signs or symptoms
    • Teeth are vital and do not require treatment
  45. What is the appearance of Hypercementosis
    • šApical area appears enlarged/bulbous
    • šNormal appearing PDL and lamina dura
  46. Image Upload
  47. A Periapical abscess results from ________ while a periodontal abscess results from __________
    • an infection within the pulp
    • šBacterial infection within periodontal tissues (preexisting periodontal condition where opening of pocket becomes obstructed)
    • šRL area lateral to root
Card Set:
Radiology PP-U&Z1 Exposure Errors/Pupal lesions
2018-01-17 20:29:22
Radiology PP Z1 Exposure Errors Pupal lesions
Radiology PP-U&Z1 Exposure Errors/Pupal lesions
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