theory 1 ch 4

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Author:
jackiedh
ID:
32970
Filename:
theory 1 ch 4
Updated:
2010-09-07 21:26:06
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definitions
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key terms
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  1. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
    any agent that kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms
  2. ANTISEPTIC
    a substance that prevents or arrests the growth or action of microorganisms either by inhibiting their activity or by destroying them; especially used for application to topical tissues
  3. ASEPSIS
    • free from contamination with microorganisms, includes sterile conditions in tissues and on materials
    • removes or kills microorganisms
    • chain of asepsis: a procedure that avoids transfer of infection. the "chain" each step is related to the previous one and continues to be carried out without contamination
  4. ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
    procedures carried out in the absence of pathogenic microorganisms
  5. BIOBURDEN
    microbiologic load that is the number of containing organisms present on a surface prior to sterilization or disinfection
  6. BIOFILM
    the surface film that contains microorganisms and bother biologic substances
  7. BIOHAZARD
    a substance that poses a biologic risk because it is contaminated with biomaterial with potential for transmitting infection
  8. BIOLOGIC INDICATOR
    a preparation of nonpathogenic microorganisms, usually bacterial spores carried by an ampule or impregnated paper enclosed with a package during sterilization and incubated to verify sterilization has occurred.
  9. BROAD SPECTRUM
    indicates a range of activity of drug or chemical substance against a wide variety of microorganisms
  10. CHEMICAL INDICATOR
    • a color change stripe or other mark
    • often an autoclave tape or bag
    • used to monitor the process of sterilization
    • color change indicates that the package has been brought to a specific temp
    • but is NOT an indicator for sterilization
  11. CONTAMINATION
    • introduction of microorganisms, blood, or other potentially infectious material
    • or agent into a surface or into tissue
  12. DECONTAMINATION
    • disinfection
    • use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy pathogenic microorganisms on a surface or to the extent that they are no longer transmitting infectious disease
    • the surface or item is safe for handling, use, or disposal
  13. DISINFECTANT
    • an agent, usually a chemical, can be a physical agent such as x-rays or ultraviolet light
    • destroys microorganisms but may not kill bacterial spores.
    • refers to substances applied to inanimate objects
  14. EPA/EPA REGISTERED
    • environmental protection agency
    • epa registered: number on a label indicates that the product has the acceptance of epa
  15. FDA
    • food and drug administration
    • regulates food, drugs, biologic products, medical devices, radiologic products
  16. INFECTION CONTROL
    the selection and use of procedures and products to prevent the spread of infectious disease
  17. INFECTIOUS WASTE
    • contaminated with blood, saliva, or other substances
    • potentially or actually infected with pathogenic material
    • officially called "regulated waste"
  18. INVASIVE PROCEDURE
    entry into tissues during which bleeding occurs or other potential for bleeding exists
  19. HEALTHCARE ASSOCIATED INFECTION
    • acquired during a medical or surgical intervention
    • replaces nosocomial, which is limited to an adverse infectious outcome occurring in a hospital
  20. OSAP
    organization for safety and asepsis procedures
  21. PEP
    postexposure prophylaxis
  22. SANITATION
    • the process by which the number of organisms on inanimate objects is reduced to a safe level
    • a cleaning process that does not imply freedom of microorganisms
  23. SHELF LIFE
    • stability of an item after it has been prepared
    • length of time a substance or preparation can be kept without changes occurring in its chemical structure or other properties
  24. SPORICIDE
    substance that kills spores
  25. SYNERGISM
    the joint action of agents so their combined effect is greater than the sum of other individual parts
  26. STERILIZATION
    process by which all forms of life, and bacterial spores, are destroyed by a physical or chemical mean
  27. WASTE
    • infectious waste: capable of causing an infectious disease
    • contaminated waste: items that have contacted blood or other body secretions
    • hazardous waste: poses a risk to humans or the environment
    • toxic waste: capable of having a poisonous effect:
  28. REGULATED WASTE
    liquid blood or saliva, sharps contaminated with blood or saliva, nonsharp solid waste saturated with or caked with liquid or semisolid blood or saliva or tissue including teeth (OSHA)

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