Histo embryo - quiz 2 info

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Histo embryo - quiz 2 info
2010-09-14 21:04:50
sgu histo embryo

cardio, immune, embryology
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  1. heart
    • wall is composed of three layers
    • endocardium (inner) (3 layers)
    • Myocardium (middle)
    • epicardium (outermost)
  2. Endocardium (inner layer of heart wall)
    • lines atria and ventricels (3 layers)
    • endothelium
    • inner subendothelia layer
    • outer subendothelial layer
  3. inner layer of endocardium
    • endothelium
    • simple squamous epithelium
  4. middle layer of endocardium
    • inner subendothelial layer
    • dense irrgular CT w/ collagen and elsatic fibers and occasional smooth muscle cells
  5. outer layer of endocardium
    • outer subenthelial layer
    • loosely arranged collagen and elastic fibers
    • may contain purkinji fibers
  6. endocardium contains
    • cardiac valves
    • endocardial folds that consist of a central layer of dense CT coverd by enothelium
  7. what is Endocarditis
    • most common heart disease in vet med
    • an infection travels to heart endocardium
  8. mycardium (middle layer of heart wall)
    • thickest layer
    • bundles and groups of cardiac muscle cells (caps, lymph, nerves, intersitial CT)
    • SA and AV nodes (impulse generation)
    • Purkinje fibers (impulse conducting, below endocardium)
    • Cardiac skeleton
  9. SA and AV nodes
    • in myocardium
    • network of small, branching nodal cells that are modified cardiac muscle cells w/ fewer myofibrils
  10. Cardiac skeleton
    • 3 layers
    • fibrous rings
    • fibrous triangle
    • fibrous part of the interventricular septum
  11. fibrous rings of the cardiac skeleton
    • collagen and elastic fibers
    • surrounds AV openings and aorta and pulmonary trunk
  12. fibrous triangle of cardiac skeleton
    • CT that fills space betreen AV opening and base of aorta
    • between RV and LV
    • predominantly dense irregular CT (pigs and cats)
    • fibrocatilage (dog)
    • bone (large ruminants, mainly cow) hyalin hores and cow
  13. fibrous part of the interventrivular septum (layer of cardiac Skeleton)
    collagen fiber bundles
  14. Epicardium (outer layer of cardiac muscle)
    loose CT containing blood vessels, nerves and ganglia and adipose tissue
  15. epicardium is lined with
    • visceral pericardium
    • simple squamous epithelium
  16. outer most layer of epicardium
    • parietal pericardium
    • mesothelial layer
    • collagen layer and elastic fibers
  17. cavity in Epicadium between parietal and visceral pericardium
    • pericardial cavity
    • contains serous fluid lubricating the surfaces for frictionless cardiac movement
  18. hydropericardium
    high fluid in pericardial cavity
  19. arteries
    • elastic or large
    • muscular of medium
    • arteriole or small sized
  20. veins
    small, medium and large sizes
  21. microvasculature
    comprised of arteriole, capillaries and venules
  22. Tunica intima
    • inner most layer of vessels
    • simple squamous endotheilum
    • subendothelial layer w/ collagen and elastic fibers(orcin stain, blk)
    • smooth muscles
  23. membrane between tunica intima and tunica media
    internal elastic membrane
  24. tunica media
    • middle layer of vessels
    • smooth muscles cells, layered in a helical arrarangement with elastic and collagen fibers
  25. membrane between tunica media and tunica externa
    external elastic membrane
  26. tunica externa (adventitia)
    • outer most layer of vessels
    • collagen and elastic fibers predominate, smooth muscles may be present,
    • contains vasa vasorum and nervi vasorum
  27. Elastic arteries
    • tunica intima - thicker, subendothelial layer has numerous fine elastic fibers
    • internal elastic membrane - indictinct
    • tunica media - thickest layer, concentrically arranged fenestrated elastic laminae w/ smooth muscle in between laminae, ground substance is basophilic b/c of sulphated GAGs
    • external elastic membrane - distinct
    • tunica externa - longitudinally arranged bundles of collagen fibers intermixed with few elastic fibers, vasa vasorum and nervi vasovorum
  28. Muscular arteries
    • tunica intima - usual
    • internal elastic membrane - distinct
    • tunica media - thick, soomth muscle in a helical pattern, elastic and collagen fibers between smooth muscle layers for strenght
    • external elastic membrane - not always clearly defined
    • tunica externa - usual
  29. arterioles
    • tunica intima - usual
    • internal elastic membrane - fenestrated and eventually disappears in smaller arterioles
    • tunica media - 1-3 layers of smooth muscle and may contain collagen fibers
    • external elastic membrane - absent
    • tunica externa - loose CT and usual
  30. arterioles open to caps
    through pre-cap sphincter of smooth m. or into metarterioles, which have isolated bundles of smooth m.
  31. Capillaries
    • 5 10um diameter
    • endotheial cells and associated basal lamina. pericytes and a thin adeventitial CT layer(lacks in brain)
    • form networks - cap beds for exchange of circulating blood and intersititial fluid
    • pericytes form CT
  32. types of caps
    • continuous
    • fenestrated
    • sinusoidal, sinusoids
    • porous
  33. continuous caps
    • in muscles, endothelial cells are held together by tight junctionc
    • transcytotic vesicles are common
  34. fenestrated caps
    • visceral caps,
    • GIT - for exchange
  35. sinusodidal cap
    fenestrated caps in endocrine glands
  36. porous caps
    • present in the kidney glomerulus
    • filtration barries
  37. sinusoids
    • liver parenchyma
    • larger than caps
    • shape changes with the surrounding parenchyma
    • large openings and pores in the endothelial cells provide a max exchange
  38. venules 3 types
    • post-capillary venules
    • pericytic or collecting venules
    • muscular venules
  39. post - capillary venules
    • similar in structure to capilaries, but larger in diameter (10-30um) and have continuous or fenestrated enothelial cells
    • lymphoid organs - simple cuboidal epithelium
  40. pericytic or collecting venules
    pericytes form the continuous layer plus collagen fibers form a thin tunica externa
  41. muscular venules
    pericyte layer is replaced by one or 2 smooth layers plus the tunica externa becomes more prominent
  42. veins
    • larger lumen, thiner walls, all similar to arteries except
    • tunica media- thinner
    • tunica externa - thicker
    • semilunar valves - folds of tunica interna with a core of collagen fibers
  43. lymph vessels 3 types
    • lymph caps
    • small and medium
    • large lymph vessels
    • valves in small medium and large lymph vessels
  44. lymph caps
    • are endotheilium- lined tubes that are usually larger than blood cap
    • basal lamina is either absent or discontinuous
  45. small and medium lymph vessels
    • continuous basement membrane, increasing with diameter
    • firsst small amount of CT and then on or two layers of smooth muscle and elastic fibers are added
    • tunica externa is not distinct
  46. large lymph vessels
    • three distinct layers
    • internal elastic membran is usually absent
    • similar to veins
  47. Arteriovenous anastomoses
    • direct connections between arterioles and venules w/o an intervening capillary bed are called arteriovenous anastomoses
    • thick muscular layer that receives a dense vasomotro nerve supply(sympathetic and para)
    • ANS regualtes BP and temp, erection
    • are present in skin, lip, nasal mucosa, male and female repro tract
  48. blood
    • transport - most important (regulation and protection)
    • type of connective tissue
    • blood cells and plasma - Wright's stain
    • erythrocytes, thrombocytes (platelets), leucocytes
    • 7% of body weight
  49. centrifuged blood
    • 45% packed cell volume or hemocrit (erythrocytes) in lowest layer
    • 1% buffy coat (thrombocytes and leucocytes) middle layer
    • plasma top layer
  50. Serum
    fluid part of blood w/o cells and fibrinogen
  51. Leucocytes
    polymorphophonuclear granulocytes
    • granules in cytoplasm
    • neutophils - neutral stain (most)
    • eosinophils - granules pink
    • basophils granules purple (rare)
  52. Leucocytes
    mononuclear agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes (most)
    • monosytes
  53. RBC
    • non-nucleated biconcave disc
    • surrounded by plasma lemma - 33% hemoglobin
    • mature - don't have mito, ribo, and cytoplasmic enzymes
  54. RBC life span
    • 120 days dogs
    • 75 days cats
    • 160 cow
    • 85 pig
    • 150 horse and sheep
    • blood transfer shorter life span
  55. Rouleaux formation
    • RBC adhere to form long chains
    • prominent in horses and cats
    • b/c inflammation, shows disease
  56. erythropoietin
    • from kidney = RBC production in bone marrow
    • kidney problems cause decrease in RBC
  57. Pallor center
    • more that 1/2 of RBC
    • Fe deficiency less than 1/2
  58. goat RBC
    • flattened disc
    • smallest RBC
    • poikilocytosis (variation in size of RBC)
  59. elliptical shape RBC
    • llama, camel
    • reptiles and amphibians - have nucleus
  60. anisocytosis
    • variation in size of erythrocyte
    • normal in ruminants
    • if other animals have it then there is a problem
  61. Poikilocytosis
    • variation in shape of the erythrocytes
    • only normal in goats
  62. anemia
    decreased number of RBC in blood
  63. Echinocytes
    • crenated cells could be b/c of storage and glucose is used up
    • pigs are prone too
  64. reticulocytes
    • immature RBC
    • in dogs and cats
  65. Howel-jolly bodies
    • DNA fragments
    • normal in dogs and cats
  66. Heinz bodies
    • oxidized hemoglobin, can't carry o2
    • Felines - onion and acetaminophen
  67. neutophils
    • multilobe 3-5 joind by thin bands
    • 12-15um diameter, heterochromatic segmented nuclei
    • barr body (extra chromatin lobe) Females
    • cytoplasm is greyish blue: cytoplasmic granules (bactericidal compound)
    • azurophilic granules ( hydrolytic enzymes)
    • go to chemotoxins
    • 10-14 hr in circulation
  68. neutorphils are called what in chickens
  69. eosinophils
    • 10-15 diameter, bilobed nucleus
    • pink eosinophilic granules (large in horses)
    • allergic and anaphylactic reaction
    • parasitic infestation
    • matures in bone marrow
  70. basophils
    • 10-15 um, segmented of irregularly shaped heterochromatic nuclei
    • metachromatic granules - reddish violet (h2o soluble), hard to see nucleus
    • inflammatory response - histamine and heparin
    • mature in bone marrow
  71. lymphocytes
    • mononuclear, no granules
    • small round w/ spherical nucleus (thin rim of cytoplasm
    • 7-15um
  72. which WBC is differernt in grey hounds
  73. mast cell
    in tissue, secret histamine and heparin
  74. pelger-huetanomaly
    • aus shep,
    • genetice
    • nuclear morphologic changes to granulocytes and moncytes
    • does not cause disease
  75. B - lymphocyte
    • from bone marrow
    • cloacal bursa in birds
    • produces antibodies (plasma cells) some develop into memory cells
    • non speceific immunity
    • 10 % of circulating lymphocytes
  76. which WBC are non specific immunity
    • B and T lymphocytes
    • NK cells
  77. T - lymphocytes
    • dervied from thymus
    • cell mediated immunity - some memory cells formed
    • 75% of circulating lymphocytes
    • non - specific immunity
  78. t - lymphocytes cells
    • helper cells - receptors or chemical signals, ID anitgens
    • cytotoxic cells - destroy body cells that are infected
  79. NK cells
    • from bone marrow
    • mainly protect against cancer cells
    • nonspecific immunity
    • 10 - 15 % of WBC
  80. monocytes
    • largest WBC
    • phagocytic - vacuoles
    • nucleus - kidney shape, oval or horse - shoe shape
    • cytoplasm - abundant, greyish blue, fine azurophilic granules (blue)
    • precursors of tissue macrophages (different names depending on where at in the body)
    • cytokines
  81. cytokines
    • many types of different effects
    • Fever
  82. what is necessary for maximal immunological response
    • intimate contact of lymphocytes and monocytes
    • cause cell signaling
  83. thrombocytes/platelets
    • 1-4 um, discoid, spherical or elongated, individual or clusters
    • external membrane is covered by an amorphous material forming the external coat that is responsible for platelet adhesive property
    • microfilament and mictotubules are present beneath the plasmalemma and are responsible for platelet shape change and clot reduction
  84. hematopoisis
    blood cell formation in bone marrow
  85. embyonic hematopisis
    • early - occur in yolk sac
    • later - hematopoitic cells migrate from yolk sac to fetal liver
    • cells from liver migrate to the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus
  86. bone marrow
    • nutrients from arteries that enter midshaft and provide blood supply, terminate on periphery of marrow and join veins by periphery sinouses
    • venous or vascular siouses that anastomose and drain blood to the central vein (mature cells of to sinuses then circulation)
  87. types of bone marrow
    • red - actively involved in hematopoisis
    • yellow - inactive and fatty
    • can be interconveted
  88. pluripotent stem cells
    • totipotent - differentiat to any cell
    • lymphoid stem cell
    • myeloid stem cell
  89. lymphoid stem cells form
    T B and NK cells
  90. immune system
    protects the body from foreign particles (antigens) and cancer cells
  91. general structure of immune system
    immune cells from parenchyma (immunocytes)
  92. stoma cells
    • reticular cells
    • epithelial reticular cells
    • dendritic cells
  93. reticular cells of stroma
  94. mesenchymal origin
    • form reticulum in lymphatic organs (except tymus and cloacal bursa)
    • fomation of reticular fibers
  95. epithelial reticular cells of stroma
    • endoderm
    • long processes
    • thymus and cloacal bursa have stellate epithelical reticular cells which form the stroma
  96. dendritic cells of stroma
    • anitgen capture and presenting to lymphocytes
    • develop in bone marrow
    • stellate-shaped cells present in nearly all tissues
  97. lymph nodes
    • filter lymph before going back too blood stream
    • affertn vessels to node
    • effernt vessels away from node (mostly)
    • capsule of dense irregular CT with a few elastic fibers
    • trabeculae exten from the capsule in to the parnchyma = irregular septa
  98. lyphoid organs - "training"
    • primary or central lymphoid organ (produce lymphoid percursors)
    • Ebryonic yolk sac
    • Thymus
    • GALT (pyers patches)(galt associated lymph tissue)
    • Cloacal Bursa
    • Bone marrow
  99. lymphoid organs - "battle field"
    • secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs
    • house mature immunocytes and site of immune responsiveness
    • lymph nodes - antigen presenting
    • spleen
    • MALT - mucosa associated lymph tissue
  100. sinuses of lymph nodes
    • subscapular, trabecular and medullary sinus
    • endothelium like reticular cells (stroma) lines
    • lymphocytes and macrophages are "free"
    • some perculates through cortex and medulary cords to reach the medulary sinus
  101. cortex of lymph node
    • outer - primary and seconday lymphatic nodules separated by diffuse lymphatic tissue
    • Primary - reticular CT with tightly packed lymphocytes
    • Seconday - germinal centers w/ dark zone (large lymphocytes w/ intense mitotic activity)
    • light zone (small lymphocytes w/ few mitotic cells)
    • deep cortex - diffuse lymphatic tissue
  102. medulla of lymph node
    • medullary cords that branch and anastomose throughout the medula - composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages
    • separated by a network of endothelial-lined sinuses and CT
    • (reversed in oigs)
  103. blood vessels of lymph nodes
    • artery enters at hilus
    • post cap venules - deep in cortex, cuboidal epithelium, join veins in the medullary trabeculae, return and empty into large veins that leave the hilus
  104. thymus
    • capsule - CT prenetrates the parenchyma and divides it into lobules
    • lobes - dark (cortex) and light zone (medulla)
    • cortex - epithelial reticulum ( stellate shape, light staining oval nuclei, processes are connected by desmosomes)
    • active in young - involutes after puberty (degenerates and b/c CT and fat)
  105. thymus medulla
    • same cell population as the cortex with larger number of epithelial reticular cells
    • contains Hassal's or thymic corpuscles - keratinized, flattened and concentrically arranged cells
  106. thymus WBC
    • marcophages - abundant in vicinity of medulla
    • lymphoblasts and medium sized lymphocytes predoinated the meshes of the peripheral reticulum, for mitotic division producing small lymphocytes that mainly occupy the deep cortex
  107. vascularization of Thymus
    • no afferent lymh vessels
    • cap network drain into post capillary venules in the medulla to join veins in CT septa
    • arteries penetrate the parnechyma at the corticomedullary junction by way of the CT septa and form a capillary network in the cortex
    • Blood thymic barrier- cap endothelium, perivascular space and a sheath of epith cell process (prevents circulating antigen from reaching thymic cortex where T - cytes form for protection)
  108. Function of Spleen
    • filter blood by removing abonormal or worn out RBC
    • store erythrocytes, platelets, Fe for hemoglobin syn
    • Erythropoiesis in Fetus
    • involved in immune response against blood-borne antigens
  109. Structure of spleen
    • Surround by capsule - CT and smooth muscle
    • - sends out trabeculae (contain arteries, veins, lymph vessels and nerves)
    • Splenic parenchyma - red and white pulp (capsule trabeculae and reticular fibers support)
  110. red pulp of spleen
    • Splenic cords - 3D network of reticular fiber w/ reticular cells, enmeshed w/ erythrocytes, macs, lymphocytes, plasma cells and other leucocyter
    • Splenic sinuses - wide vascular channels between the splenic cords, lined w/ enodthelial cells containing contractile microfilaments which on contraction create gaps allowing erythrocytes to pass between the splenic cords and sinuses
  111. Whit pulp of spleen
    • lymphatic nodules - PeriArterial Lymphatic Sheaths (PALS): T-cells concentrated adjacent to the tunica media of the artery of the white pulp, peripheral region has mixture of T - cells, B - cells and macs
    • reticular cells form a 3D network containing lymphocytes and macs
    • germinal centers - in nodules present depending on functional state
  112. marginal zone of spleen
    • between white and red pulp, filters blood
    • white pulp - periphery is bounded by circumferential reticular network w/ B-cell and macs
    • reticular network - receives capillaries from the white pulp and red that empty into marginal sinuses, blood then drained towardsvenous sinuses or venules of red pulp
  113. blood vessels of spleen
    • Splenis artery - enters capsule goes to trabecular arteries, leaves trabecula now called artery of white pulp w/ lots of lymphotcytes (PALS)
    • Branches of white pulp - continue to feed cap beds in nodule and terminate in the marginal zone or enter the red pulp as pulp arterioles
    • pulp arterioles - make sheathed caps or ellipsoids (surrounded by a sheath of mac sequesteres in a network of reticular cells and fibers
  114. terminal caps of Spleen
    • CLosed theory - terminal caps open directly into the splenic sinuses or venules
    • Open theory - terminal caps open into the spaces between the reticular cells of the red pulp and then enter the venous sinuses through the slit in walls
    • Third theory - existnece of both, depending on physiological state: distended open predominates, contracted closed predoninates
  115. lymph vessels in spleen
    • no Afferent lymph vessels
    • efferent capsular and trabecular lymph vessels originate in the white pulp and drain into splenic lymph nodes
  116. Species differences of spleen
    • Dog - sinusual spleen: abundant venous sinuses
    • Cat, horse, pig, ruminant - nonsinusual spleen: poorly developed sinuses
  117. MALT
    • Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue
    • lymphoid aggregation present in submucosa of digestive and respiratory system organs
    • RALT and BALT
  118. GALT
    • Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue
    • large aggregates of single lymphatic nodules: peyers patches (ileum) present in distal jejunum/ileum in young ruminants and carnivores
    • solitary lymph nodules are present in colon and rectum and cecum in birds
    • SI ileum peyers patches - Submucosa
    • primary lymphoid organ
  119. cloacal bursa (bursa of Fabricius)
    • BIRDS - sac like diverticulum or proctodeum
    • Plicae - tall mucosal folds, many lymphoid follicles
    • lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • B - lymphocytes differentiate here
  120. Hemal node
    • small brown-dark red ONLY IN RUMINANTS
    • "acessory spleen" no internal partitions , enlarge after spleenectomy
    • cortex and medula not distinct
    • NO lymph vessels - get everything from blood
    • Young - diffuse lymphatic tissue and few lymph nodes present
    • Adults - fills w/ RBC b/c of antigenic stimulation, many nodules may form, sinuses are wide with few mac and lymphocytes
  121. Tonsil
    • Surrounded by CT capsule (stratified squamousm oropharynx, psuedostratified nasopharynx)
    • beneath epithelium, diffuse lymphatic tissue w/ plasma cells surrounded by lymphatic nodules w/ germinal centers (lighter)
    • epithelium infiltrated w/ lymphocytes, neutrophils and macs