PrevMed2- Swine Coronavirus
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What are microbial properties of PEDV?
- transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and porcine resp coronavirus (PRCV) are also coronaviruses and provide cross-protection against each other but NOT for PEDV
Describe the reportability of PEDV.
- NOT an OIE-listed disease
- became nationally reportable in the USA in 2014
How is PEDV transmitted?
- direct transmission by fecal-oral transmission
- indirect transmission by poop on fomites
What is the incubation and shedding period of PEDV?
- incubation 24-72 hours after infection
- fecal shedding peaks at 5-6DPI and stops 21-35DPI
- NOT ZOONOTIC, NOT FOOD SAFETY CONCERN, just bad for production
Describe the pathogenesis of PEDV.
attacks mature villous enterocytes in small intestine--> atrophic enteritis and villous blunting--> acute malabsorptive diarrhea, dehydration, metabolic acidosis
Describe the morbidity and mortality of PEDV.
- high morbidity
- variable mortality (kills young pigs)
Clinical signs of PEDV.
- watery diarrhea, flocculent and fetid (not distinguishable from TGE)
- +/- vomiting
- 4-5 DPI
- may become endemic
How do you diagnose PEDV? (4)
- virus isolation
- real-time PCR (cannot distinguish b/w live and dead virus- may pick up nucleic acids from previous outbreak)
- electron microscopy
Describe treatment options for PEDV. (5)
- Neonatal piglets <7 days old will die...consider humane euth
- Wean all surviving piglets at 10 days old and get them away from mom (source of infection)
- supportive care through hydration and electrolytes
- Growing pigs recover without treatment unless secondary infections occur
- Build sow herd immunity- feed dead infected piglets
Describe prevention and control of PEDV. (4)
- natural immunity in maternal antibodies via colostrum from PEDV immune sows
- vaccine is no good
- all in-all out
What are biosecurity procedures to put in place to limit risk from people? (10)
- perimeter fence
- sign-in book
- door locks
- door bell
- farm clothes
- in barn kitchen
- no foreign travel
- down time (if you've been in contact with other pigs, you can't come back for a specified period of time)
- wash hands
Porcine delta-coronavirus clinical signs. (5)
- [different from PEDV]
- off feed sows
- slower spread
- quicker recovery (than PEDV)
- 30-40% piglet mortality (lower than PEDV)
What 3 viruses cause the same clinical signs?
- PDCoV (porcine delta coronavirus)
How do you confirm a positive, reportable case of swine enteric coronavirus disease? (reportable in US only)
- tested postive for PEDV, PDCoV, or other emerging swine enteric coronavirus by PCR, virus isolation, or viral genetic sequencing
- has a history of clinical signs consistent or from a herd with a history of clinical signs
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