Tissues, Skin, Cells

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Tissues, Skin, Cells
2010-09-06 18:51:46
tissue histology connective tissues

tissue histology; Lab practical exam 1 Anatomy
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  1. Connective tissue proper: loose, Adipose

    • Function: Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs.
    • Location: Under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs, within abdomen, in breasts.
  2. Connective tissue proper: Loose, Areolar

    • Function: Wraps and cushions organs, its macrophages phagocutize bacteria
    • Location: Widely distributed under epithelia of body; forms lamina propria of mucous membranes, packages organs; surrounds capillaries.
  3. Connective Tissue Proper, loose Reticular

    • Structure: Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network.
    • Function: Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including WBC's, mast cells and macrophages.
    • Location: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen).
  4. Skeletal muscle

    • Function: Voluntary movement, locomotion
    • Location: In skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin.
  5. Smooth Muscle

    • Function: Propels substances (food, urine, even a baby) along internal passageways, involuntary control, Erector pili in hair shaft
    • Location: Mostly in walls of hollow organs.
  6. Cardiac Muscle

    • Function: As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control
    • Location: The walls of the heart.
  7. Nervous Tissue

    • Function: Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and in to effectors that control their activity
    • Location: Brain, spinal cord and nerves.

  8. Hair Follicle; Thin Skin

    • Identify:
    • Arrector Pili
    • Hair Root
    • Hair Shaft
    • Hair Bulb in follicle
    • Sebaceous gland (may not be in this image)

  9. Thick Skin

    • Located on palms and soles of primates
    • Identify all 5 layers of Epidermis:
    • Stratum Corneum
    • Stratum Lucidium (not on test)
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Basale

  10. Thin Skin, epidermis

    • Identify 4 layers:
    • Stratum Corneum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Basale
  11. Dermis two sublayers:

    • Papillary Layer: Made of Areolar CT
    • Reticular Layer: Made of DICT Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

  12. Sebaceous Gland

    • Skin's oil glands.
    • Produce sebum, which is called holocrin secretion. Most sebacious glands are associated with hair follicles.
    • Function of sebum: collects dirt, softens hair and skin, prevents hair from becoming brittle, keeps ipidermis from cracking, slows water loss across the skin and kills bacteria.
    • Eccrine sudoriferous gland
    • Only mammals have sweat glands.
    • Eccrine are most numerous sweat glands on body.
    • Most abundant on palms, soles and forehead. Coiled version of a simple tubular gland.

    Appocrine sudoriferous glands are confinded to axillary, anal and gential areas. Produce a special kind of sweat consisting of fatty substances and proteins, in addition to the components of true sweat. Tje breakdown of bacteria produce body odor.

  13. Hyaline Cartilage

    • Structure: Looks like frosted glass. Most abundant type of cartilage. Chondrocutes appear spherical. Each chondrocyte occupies a cavity in the matrix called a Lacuna.
    • Function: Provides support through flexibility and resilience.
    • Location: Trachea, embryonic skeleton, covers ends of long bones, costal cartilage of ribs, nose, larynx.

  14. Elastic Cartilage

    • Structure: Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in the matrix
    • Function: Maintains the shape of a structure, while allowing great flexibility
    • Location: External ear.

  15. Fibrocartilage

    • Structure: Matrix less firm to hyaline, thick collagen fibers predominate
    • Function: Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.
    • Location: Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joint.
  16. Bone or Osseous Tissue

    • Structure: Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very Vascularized.
    • Function: Bone supports and protects. Stores calcium and other minerals and fat. Marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation.
    • Location: Bones.
  17. Blood cells.

    • Structure: Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix called plasma.
    • Function: Transport of respiratory gasses, nutrients, wastes and other substances.
    • Location: contained within blood vessels.
  18. What are the cells that serve as phagocytes in the epidermis?
    • Langerhans Cells
    • Star shaped cells are part of the immune system.
  19. What are the most abundant epidermal cells?

    Keratinocytes produce keratin, a tough fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective properties. Also produce antibiotics and enzymes that detoxify the harmful chemicals to which our skin is exposed. Keratinocytes are located in the epidermis. They are dead cells when they reach the surface of epidermis, and contain keratin but no nucleous.
  20. What are the finger-like pegs of the dermis that can contain blood vessels or sensory receptors?
    Dermal Papillae are finger like projections that project into the overlying epidermis.
  21. Which type of gland is most abundant on the palms, soles and forehead?
    • Eccrine Glands
    • Sudoriferous
  22. Identify objects at E.O.P.
    • 1) Reticular Fibers
    • 2) White Blood Cell (lymphocyte)
    • 3) Mast Cells
    • 1) Cell body: soma
    • 2) Neuronal Process
    • 3) Neuronal Process
    • 4) Neuroglia
    • 1) Dorsal Horn
    • 2) Ventral Horn
    • 3) White matter
    • 4) Grey matter
    • 5) Central Canal
  23. Name the four types of tissues:
    • 1) Epitheliium
    • 2) Connective Tissue
    • 3) Muscle
    • 4) Nervous
  24. True or False:
    Are cells found in epithelial tissue densely packed together and have no extra cellular matrix?
    True. Cells are held together by lateral structures such as tight junctions and desmosomes.
  25. True or False:
    Epithelium is quite vascular.
    False. Epithelium does not have a blood supply. Cells are fed by diffusion of nutrients from the underlying connective tissue.
  26. True or False:
    Ground substance is an amorphous material produced bu the major cell type in the connective tissue.
    • True.
    • In bone it is osteoblasts, condroblasts in cartilage etc.
  27. True or False:
    Cartilage is vascular.
    • False.
    • Cartilage is avascular.
  28. In bone, longitudinal channels are referred to as ________ ________ while transverse channels are called ________ ________.
    Haversian Canals & Volkmann's Canals.
  29. True or False:
    Osteocytes are isolated in lacunae with one cell per lacuna.
    Cartilage can typically have several cells per lacuna.
    • True.
    • Cartilage may have several cells per lacuna as a results of cell division that occurs after a cell is surrounded by matrix.
  30. Skeletal muscle has _______ nuclei/nucleus per cell.
    • Multiple.
    • Multinulcleated cells.
  31. Smooth muscle has ________ nuclei/nucleus per cell.
    Single nucleus per cell.
  32. Cardiac Muscle has _______ nuclei/nucleus per cell.
    Single Nucleus per cell.
  33. ___________ cells are found in peripheral nervous system. Cells wrap around axon or dendrite, producing a myelin sheath which enahnces the speed of travel of an impulse.
    Schwann cell.
  34. ___________ are found in the central nervous system. Forms myelin sheaths and also enhances the speed of transmission of the impulse.
  35. True or False:
    Fibers are visable in hyaline cartilage.
    False. There are NO fibers visable in hyaline cartilage.
  36. The spider-like projections from lacunae in bone tissue are called __________/
  37. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Proper